Monday, December 9, 2019

Companies Intellectual Property Concerns

Question: Discuss about the Companies Intellectual Property Concerns? Answer: Abstract This is a case study based analysis about a companys intellectual property concerns. The company was struggling with trademark and copyright infringement issues, which can be protected with effective IP strategies. Key words: Intellectual property, Trademark, Copyright The identified main issues of School Zone, a retail teachers supply outlet, have to be analysed at the discussion board in the following manner: Hiring process of School Zone relating to the issue and recommendation: The family owned educational media company was facing problem regarding trademark and copyright infringement. Here it was important to check the previous records of individual before appointing anyone into their business. Before the company was not aware of such contingencies which have played a key role in this issue. Therefore, checking criminal records and previous legal consequences needs to be evaluated properly by the management authority. The suspected personality needs to be identified for mitigating any entrepreneurship issue. Protection of Intellectual property of School Zone: No, Hoffmans decision was not right. Defending School Zones intellectual property through patents and other tactics creates the legal underpinning essential to safeguard the companys ideas (Lemley, 2015). These option he would have been adopted earlier into his business. For this, Dogs in Hats needed to pay for use of School Zones ideas. Starting this IP strategy at the early stage of the operation and appointing a patent attorney would be recommended for protection of the companys intellectual property rights (Fang, Lerner Chaopeng, 2015). However, these consequences may face by small companies as well if they fail to protect their intellectual property like School Zone. Defending the intellectual property rights: When the company has agreed to sign legal agreements along with other identical companies where legal obligations have clearly settled out with each party, then a company should stop defending its IP rights through the court system. Entrepreneurs should not determine IP strategy by time or expense parameters because this is an on-going legal process, which is essential for dealing entrepreneurship protectively. References: Fang, L. H., Lerner, J., Chaopeng, W. (2015). Intellectual Property Rights Protection, Ownership, and Innovation: Evidence from China.Ownership, and Innovation: Evidence from China (June 9, 2015). Lemley, M. A. (2015). Faith-Based Intellectual Property.UCLA L. Rev.,62, 1328.

Monday, December 2, 2019

Refugees And Ordinary Migrants

Introduction Refugees and ordinary migrants are people who enter and settle permanently in foreign countries. When people move across international borders to go and live in other countries, they move to reside in the given countries as immigrants. They can also be called refugees or asylum seekers. It is a requirement by the international laws of the United Nations on refugees that refugees should be formally recognized by the immigrant countries.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Refugees And Ordinary Migrants specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The immigrant countries should grant and approve visas to the refugees to allow them to live in them according to the laws on refugees. The laws on refugees were formed to curb illegal entry of refugees into any given country because of security and economic reasons. Sometimes, refugees do not have to necessarily move from their countries of origin to other countries to qual ify as refugees. People who move from one part of their country to another can also be called refugees in some sense. Such people are referred to as internally displaced persons (IDPS). The intention of this study is to highlight the similarities and the differences that exist between refugees and ordinary immigrants. The study also indicates how both the refugees and ordinary immigrants face issues of trans-nationalism and assimilation. Similarities and differences between refugees and immigrants Refugees and ordinary immigrants normally move from their native countries to settle in different countries. Refugees relocate from their countries as a result of persecution by their mother governments or insurgents. Circumstances like civil war and religious conflicts instill fear to people prompting them to flee from their countries into others. Such relocations by the refugees are involuntary and are informed by the prevailing circumstances of insecurity. An example was the civil war i n Rwanda between the Hutus and the Tutsis which led to genocide in the early 1990s.The ethnic war led to the flight of many Rwandeses from their native country Rwanda to the neighboring countries in the East African region. Once the refugees are in the immigrant countries, they are provided with basic necessities such as food, shelter and education. To some extent, they are also given financial aid. The immigrant governments have special agencies that look in to the welfare of the refugees. The UNHCR is an international body whose mandate is to coordinate all the affairs of refugees globally.Advertising Looking for essay on social sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Ordinary immigrants on the other hand, relocate from their countries voluntarily. The urge to seek for better social and economic prospects inspires some people to personally choose to relocate to countries in which such prospects are easily attainable. Curre ntly, more people from developing countries especially in Africa are voluntarily relocating to developed countries to seek for employment. In addition, during the Great Depression in the 1930s that caused a severe economic decline in the US, most Americans migrated from USA to Europe. The need for family members to join others who live in different countries persuades them to relocate. Assimilation and Tran nationalism Refugees and ordinary immigrants are assimilated to the immigrant countries. In USA, a refugee can work and seek for permanent working status. They can also start businesses. Through the American Cultural Assimilation Policy, immigrants to the United States of America get absorbed into the American culture and gradually the distinction between the immigrants and the citizens of America becomes unrecognizable. The refugees and ordinary immigrants are also able to maintain social and economic ties between themselves and natives in the immigrant countries. Jews who are s cattered all over Asia, Europe and America still maintain social connections with their native country of origin, Israel. Conclusion The number of refugees in the world today has declined marginally. This is as a result of the decline of political, social and religious conflicts. A lot of effort should also be made to improve the economic status of each country. This will reduce the number of ordinary immigrants and refugees. This essay on Refugees And Ordinary Migrants was written and submitted by user Raquel Q. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Endeavors of Envy- A Separate Peace Essays

Endeavors of Envy- A Separate Peace Essays Endeavors of Envy- A Separate Peace Essay Endeavors of Envy- A Separate Peace Essay Endeavors of Envy- A Separate Peace BY sabYGtng19 Endeavors of Envy William Penns quote that the Jealous are troublesome to others, but a torment to themselves illustrates the deleterious effects of suppressing Jealousy. Enw, when suppressed, corrupts an individuals perspective, creating the alternative. It can trigger a corroding of the mind, causing impulsive actions. John Knowles A Separate Peace analyzes Gene Forresters inability to prevent himself from harboring Jealousy within, thus resulting in a thin line between hallucination and reality. Finnys athleticism and humility embed a seed of Jealousy within Gene. Genes bafflement becomes evident when he realizes Phineas endeavors are mere perfection; however, he refuses to boast his accomplishments. Phineas humility towards his feats infuriates Gene, causing him to see himself as the epitome of inadequacy and Finny as the essence of good (Flum 6). Once this feeling is developed, envious thoughts begin to overtake Gene. Phineas accomplishments [take] root in [Genes] mind growing] rapidly in the darkness where [he is] forced o hide the raging emy to which Gene is beginning to succumb (Knowles 44). Gene realizes Phineas has never been Jealous of him, causing Gene to seek revenge. Upon the realization that Phineas is not Jealous, Genes subconscious mind leads him to believe he is not of the same quality as [Phineas] (Knowles 59). Gene is adamant in his refusal to the truth, and this begins to fuel his shadow self. Envy begins to boil over inside of Gene causing impulsive action s. His action is to physically bring down the idol, to test the limits of Finnys incredible athletic ability, nd because Phineas fails the test, Gene becomes confused and must now reevaluate himself and his idol. Genes enw leads to a metaphoric death which in turn becomes a rebirth of his identity. Idealizing and de-idealizing Phineas forces Gene to transform into an utterly confused false self. In order to forge his own identity and be free, Gene must confront reality, and the walls [he and Phineas] have erected around themselves [must] crack (Flum). The rebirthing process is difficult because Gene continues to ave Jealous thoughts, taking over the vast span of his mind and controlling him. Resulting from Genes Jealousy and impulsive actions, Phineas dies along with his vitality and humility. Finnys literal death doubles as a metaphoric death for Gene where he cannot escape the feeling that this [is his] own funeral (Knowles). John Knowles A Separate Peace illustrates how Gene is his own worst enemy, causing him to lose himself in the process of idealizing Phineas. His challenge is depicting what is reality and what is a hallucination. His idols humility to his feats causes Gene to seek revenge for self pleasure in order to test the idol; however, his failure results in a literal death to the idol and a metaphoric death to himself. Flum, et al. Relational processes and identity formation in adolescence: The example of A Separate Peace. Genetic, Social General Psychology Monographs 121. 4 (1995): 1-11. Academic Search Premier. Ebsco. 28 Aug. 2013.. Knowles, John. A Separate Peace. New York: Scribner, 2003. Penn, William. Brainy Quote. 6 Sept. 2013

Saturday, November 23, 2019

The Chemistry of How Borax Works as a Cleaner

The Chemistry of How Borax Works as a Cleaner What Is Borax? Borax (also known as sodium borate decahydrate; sodium pyroborate; birax; sodium tetraborate decahydrate; sodium biborate) is a natural mineral compound (Na2B4O7 10H2O). It was discovered over 4000 years ago. Borax is usually found deep within the ground, although it has been mined near the surface in Death Valley, California since the 1800s. Although it has numerous industrial uses, in the home borax is used as a natural laundry booster, multipurpose cleaner, fungicide, preservative, insecticide, herbicide, disinfectant, dessicant, and ingredient in making slime. Borax crystals are odorless, whitish (can have various color impurities), and alkaline. Borax is not flammable and is not reactive. It can be mixed with most other cleaning agents, including chlorine bleach. How Does Borax Clean? Borax has many chemical properties that contribute to its cleaning power. Borax and other borates clean and bleach by converting some water molecules to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). This reaction is more favorable in hotter water. The pH of borax is about 9.5, so it produces a basic solution in water, thereby increasing the effectiveness of bleach and other cleaners. In other chemical reactions, borax acts as a buffer, maintaining a stable pH needed to maintain cleansing chemical reactions. The boron, salt, and/or oxygen of boron inhibit the metabolic processes of many organisms. This characteristic allows borax to disinfect and kill unwanted pests. Borates bonds with other particles to keep ingredients dispersed evenly in a mixture, which maximizes the surface area of active particles to enhance cleaning power. Risks Associated With Using  Borax Borax is natural, but that does not mean it is automatically safer for you or for the environment than man-made chemicals. Although plants need boron, too much of it will kill them, so borax can be used as an herbicide. Borax may also be used as an insecticide to kill roaches, ants, and fleas. In fact, it is also toxic to people. Signs of chronic toxic exposure include red and peeling skin, seizures, and kidney failure. The estimated lethal dose (ingested) for adults is 15-20 grams; less than 5 grams can kill a child or pet. For this reason, borax should not be used around food. More commonly, borax is associated with skin, eye, or respiratory irritation. It is also important to point out that exposure to borax may impair fertility or cause damage to an unborn child. Now, none of these risks mean that you shouldnt use borax. If you do a bit of research, you will find risks associated with all cleaning products, natural or man-made. However, you do need to be aware of product risks so that you can use those products properly. Dont use borax around food, keep it out of reach of children and pets, and make sure you rinse borax out of clothes and off of surfaces before use.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

The effect of national culture on Commitment forms within Essay

The effect of national culture on Commitment forms within international joint venture - Essay Example the huge population growth which had occurred in the Arab world due to work opportunities related to oil supplies resulting in considerable international migration to countries such as Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. Such immigration is mainly from surrounding countries (Ali, 1986). Such large-scale immigration occurs because there is a shortage of national labour means there is a need to seek non-national workers who then end up making national a minority within their own country (Ali, 1986). Therefore this situation results in making the national culture a minority within its own environment and has significant implications for that culture. Ali provides data to prove this assertion. For example, the national population living in the United Arab Emirates has declined from 36 per cent in 1975 to 17 per cent in 1986 (Ali, 1986). In 1986 it was predicted that the proportion of nationals living in Saudi Arabia would fall to 9 per cent in 1990 and 2.5 per cent in 2000 (Ali, 1 986). In comparison in 1983 the Indian population living in the United Arab Emirates numbered 300,000, which was one and a half times the number of nationals living in the country (Ali, 1986). Ali went on to explore the reasons why countries such as Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates depended on non-national workforces. Some factors proposed by Ali (1986) included the relatively young age of the population of the Arab Gulf States’. For example in 1975 45 per cent of the populations of these states were under 15 (Hamady, 1978; cited by Ali, 1986). Also, there is a high illiteracy rate in the Arab Gulf States’. In 1978 the rate of illiteracy in this group raged from 31 per cent in the United Arab Emirates to 57 per cent of the population of Saudi Arabia (Al-Atiah, 1983; cited by Ali, 1986). These high illiteracy rates are due to problems in the education system which does not have the capacity to provide adequate educational and technical skills (Ali, 1986). This is due to the

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Proposal for a Business Research Project Exploring the Impact of Coursework

Proposal for a Business Research Project Exploring the Impact of Passion of Employees in the Banking Sector to their performance - Coursework Example In undertaking the research, a group of banks from the same financial institution will be randomly selected as our sample for the research. A survey will be designed with the financial institutions senior management, other staffs and customers as the sample space. We will choose a sample size of 300 randomly selected respondents for the research. Data will be collected using two methods. Hand delivered questionnaires for employees and oral interviews for customers. Since our data include description data, coding will be done to the data. Then the collected data will be entered, analyzed, and interpreted to reach a conclusion. A report will be written at the end of the research to show the outcome of the research in simpler terms. Objectives 1. To identify the efforts of employers in this sector to build passion in their employees and what motivates them to do so. 2. To determine whether the passion of an employee is influenced by his level, experience and gender and whether it is nat urally acquired or built by motivation and working conditions. 3. To determine how other employees feel working with their fellows who are passionate about what they do. 4. To find out how their clients feel when served by a passionate employee and to determine the criteria they use to judge whether an employee is passionate or not. Literature Review According to Cameron and Spreitzer (2011), passion has been studied for a long time in various contexts, like philosophy, theology, political science, psychology, and sociology. They also show that most of the writings in this field argue that passion is an intense emotion that interacts with cognition and motivates an individual’s behavior. Moreover, they argue that passion makes people to be heavily involved and... According to Cameron and Spreitzer, passion has been studied for a long time in various contexts, like philosophy, theology, political science, psychology, and sociology. They also show that most of the writings in this field argue that passion is an intense emotion that interacts with cognition and motivates an individual’s behavior. Moreover, they argue that passion makes people to be heavily involved and invested in the activities they undertake. Linley and Harrington identify passion as the desires, thoughts, plans and behavior which persist over time. They also say that passion can lead to increased performance regardless of costs, external obstacles or moral objections. These scholars also reveal that the difference between passion and enjoyment is that passion is deeper and lasts for a longer time. Moreover, they indicate that in a team passion can play quite important role in motivating others and can help people to adhere to their goals despite the challenges of achie ving them. Passion for work helps employees to sustain the energy necessary for organizational excellence and enables managers to motivate and inspire other employees. This shows that passion in employees can actually make an organization to excel. Linley and Harrington show that people cannot raise passion, so the best thing to do is to identify the thing you are passionate about and pursue it in your life.

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Escalating Costs of Social Health Insurance Essay Example for Free

Escalating Costs of Social Health Insurance Essay Unlike any other country in the world, the United States continually experience rising cost of healthcare provision. Wolfe (1999) reports that healthcare costs has been increasing at a high rate for decades, it is estimated that every 40 months, the share of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) spent on healthcare goes up by 1 percent. Health expenditure which stood at 12. 3 percent of GDP in 1990 increased to 16. 0 percent of GDP in 2006 and is projected to reach 20 percent in the next 7 years. Between 2005 and 2006 alone, healthcare spending increased by 6. 7 percent, exceeding nominal GDP growth by 0. 6 percent, to a whooping $2. 1 trillion, representing an estimated $7,000 spending per person (Kuttner 2008; Catlin et al 2008). Various factors including inflation, aging population and advances in medical technology has been indicted as been responsible for the global increase in health expenditures, however, the American situation appears to be peculiar. Kuttner (2008) contends that the proliferation of new technologies, poor diet, lack of exercise, the tendency for supply (physicians, hospitals, tests, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and novel treatments) to generate demand and the culture of the American litigation, resulting in excessive malpractice litigations and the practice of defensive medicine, all adds together to ensure that the country experiences the largest and fastest growth in health expenditures, while at the same time, defeating efforts at cost containments. Like every other developed country, health insurance systems, especially social health insurance systems constitute the primarily methods of health financing (Carrin and James, 2004). This arrangement ensures that most of the cost of healthcare are paid by third parties, either through public establishments, as in social (public) health insurance systems, or by private bodies, as in private health insurance system, or in some cases, a mixture of both (Wolfe, 1999). The mixture of private and social health insurance is present in almost every country, with variations in their coverage. While in most European countries, social health insurance is deeply ingrained in societal fabric and provides the largest source of funding and insurance coverage (Saltman, 2004), the vast majority of Americans receive their health insurance coverage through employer based private insurance, with the rest of the country covered by any of the several public health insurance programs (Glover et al 2003). It is estimated that employer private health insurance covers approximately 63 percent of the population, with 51 percent of these amount covered by their own employers, while the remaining 41 percent are covered as a workers dependent; 14 percent are covered by public programs, 5 percent covered by individual insurance policies while an estimated 17 percent of the population are uncovered by any insurance (Devi, 2005). Medicare is largely regarded as the primary national (social) health insurance program in the United States, providing coverage for an estimated 44 million Americans over the age of 65. It is also estimated that Medicare provides health insurance coverage for about 7 million Americans under the age of 65 who have a disability or chronic condition (Fact Sheet, 2007). Social health insurance is a vital part of any countrys health care and health financing program, in some part of Europe, there is a general contention that social health insurance is not just an insurance arrangement, but a way of life, they are seen as a part of a social incomes policy that seek to redistribute wealth and health risk evenly amongst the population, however, the rising costs of these systems, not just in the United States but across the modern world, threatens the system. Before an analysis of the costs and factors driving costs of social health insurance systems, especially in America and in other European countries, it is important to first briefly describe the underlying principles of the social health insurance system and its difference from the private health insurance programs. This will be followed by a description of the United States Medicare program and some social health insurance programs in selected European countries and then a look at the costs of these programs. Steps taken towards cutting costs of the social insurance programs and the differences in cost cutting approaches between the United States and European Union countries will be examined. Lastly, future approaches that could help ameliorate the financial challenges facing the United States public insurance programs shall be recommended. Social Health Insurance Social health insurance, in its basic principle, in any society achieves a set of societal objectives through its peculiar form of financial cross subsidies, which covers redistribution from the healthy to the ill, from the well off to the less well off, from the young to the old and from the individual to the family. This redistributive focus of any social health insurance program distinguishes it from what is nominally regarded as insurance, thus, in several societies, it entrenches solidarity, income redistribution and is thus seen as a key part of a broader structure of social security and income support that sits at the heart of civil society (Saltman, 2004:5) Saltman and Dubois (2004) contend that although Germany is considered the source of the modern day form of social health insurance, when it codified existing voluntary structures into compulsory state supervised legislation in 1883, the history of social health insurance (SHI) dates back longer to the medieval guilds in the late Middle Ages. However, they agreed that the structure and organization of SHI over time has considerably evolved; the number of people covered has increased from a small number of workers in particular trades to a larger portion of the population, the central concept SHI has evolved from wage replacement a death benefit into payment for and or provision of outpatient physician services, inpatient hospital care and drugs; thirdly, the administrative structure of SHI has also evolved from cooperative workers association to state mandated legislative character, beginning with Germany in 1883 and the most recent, 1996 in Switzerland. Structurally, social health insurance everywhere possesses three common characteristics. Social health insurance programs are administered privately in both funding and in the provision of health services; as a result of their private administration, social health programs are self regulating, and lastly, as a consequence of their independence and self regulation, social health insurance programs are relatively stable, both in organizational and financial terms (Saltman, 2004). As a fall out of these structural characteristics, social health insurance posses several core components that differentiate them from private health insurance programs. Under SHI, the raising of funds is tied to income of beneficiaries, usually in the form of a transparent and fixed percentage of wages. As a result, contributions are risk independent and thus encourage maximal risk pooling. Also, collection and administration of revenues for the program are handled by not-for-profit and sometimes, state run funds and these funds are usually managed by board members that are usually representative and elected. The United States Medicare program posses most or all of the characteristics of a social health insurance program. For over 40 years, the program has successfully provided healthcare access for the elderly and millions of people with disability. It is regarded as the nations single largest health insurance program and it covers a wide range of the society for a broad range of health services. For example, Potetz (2008) report that one out of ever five dollars spent on healthcare in 2006 came through the Medicare program. The program is also reported to fund, at least, one third of all hospital stays, nationally. In most European countries too, national, public (social) health insurance programs reportedly covers a large proportion of the population, in most cases, reaching up to 100 percent coverage. Saltman and others (2004) reports that in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Switzerland and from 1995, Israel, all have health insurance systems where (public) social health programs plays predominant roles in organization and funding of health care services, where between 60 to 100 percent of the population are mandatorily covered. They further argue that even countries like Finland, Sweden and the United Kingdom, Greece and Portugal that have a tax funded National Health Service schemes, segments of SHI based healthcare funding also exists. Explaining the difference between social health insurance programs and private health insurance, Thomson and Mossialos (2004) contend that private health insurance play very insignificant role in the health systems of several European countries, either in terms of funding or access to healthcare. Unlike in the United States where more than 60 percent of the population are covered by private employer based insurance, private health insurance programs covers a relatively small proportion of the population and accounts for less than 5 percent of the total health spending, with the exception of France, Germany and the Netherlands. The most common difference between social and private health insurance includes eligibility, risk pooling and benefits. For social health insurance programs, contributions are mostly based on a fixed or varying proportion of wages, without regard for risks, thus a wider proportion of the people are eligible and benefits i. e. health services offered are broader with less out of pocket costs (Thomson and Mossialos, 2004; Saltman 2004). For private health insurance, the reverse is the case in most situations. Especially in for-profit private health insurance systems, contributions are adjusted according to risks and for the most part high risks individuals are rejected or expected to pay higher premiums. Consequently, eligibility requirements are strict; out of pocket expenses might be higher, while services provided vary significantly across programs, depending on an array of factors. Depending on the generally functions and services offered by private health insurance, the relation to social health insurance can be substitutive, complementary or supplementary. Substitutive private health insurance programs provides insurance covers that is otherwise available from the public programs purchased by individuals or groups who are excluded from the SHI. The larger proportion of the US society is excluded from the public insurance programs, which are usually available to the elderly, the disabled or the very poor, the rest of the population must rely on private employer based insurance. However, in European countries with effective SHI, only certain individuals with income above a certain upper threshold are excluded from the public insurance program e. g. in Netherlands and Germany, while the rest of the population are eligible. Complementary private health insurance programs provide cover for services not fully covered by the SHI programs or totally excluded, the Medicare + Choice plans is an example of such covers. Lastly, supplementary private health insurance provides cover for faster access and also increased consumer choices for individuals who can afford it (Thomson and Mossialos, 2004). Eligibility and Coverage  The United States Medicare program is essentially for the elderly, thus, individuals are eligible for Medicare coverage if they are citizens of the United States or have been a permanent legal resident for five continues years and over 65 years old. Individuals younger than 65 years of age can also be eligible for Medicare coverage if they are disabled and have been on the Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) or the Railroad Retirement Board benefits for a period of two years. Further, individuals with end state renal disease (ESRD) or Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) known as Lou Gehrig’s disease also qualifies for Medicare coverage. However, many people with disability do not qualify for SSDI benefits and by extension, Medicare. To qualify for these benefits, disabled individuals must have a family member under age 65 who have a work history which included Federal Income Contribution Act tax (FICA), an individual may also qualifies for SSDI on the FICA contributions of a parent as a Childhood Disability Beneficiary (CDB) or as a disabled spouse of a deceased spouse. Whichever qualification route applicable, an individual qualifies for Medicare two years after he/she starts receiving the SSDI benefits, except for the Lou Gehrig’s disease where Medicare benefits starts in the first month SSDI payments are received or in the case of the ESRD where Medicare benefits starts within three months of the first dialysis (Fact Sheet, 2007). As of 2007, it is estimated that Medicare provides cover and health services to about 43 million Americans. This figure is expected to double to 77 million by 2031 when the baby boomers of the post World War II period start to retire. However, as mentioned previously, SHI in European countries offer universal coverage that is mandatory in some countries. Coverage for these countries varies from 63 percent in Netherlands to 100 percent coverage in France, Israel and Switzerland. In most of these countries, it is usually the highest income groups that are either allowed or required by law to leave the social health programs for private health insurance (Saltman, 2004:7). Benefits Benefits for Medicare members have continually been modified. The original program has two parts, Medicare Part A and part B. The Part A program known as Hospital Insurance, covers hospital stays with stays in skilled nursing facilities for limited periods if certain qualifying criteria are met. Such criteria include the length of hospital stay, which most be three days, at least, excluding the discharge day and stay in skilled nursing facility must be for conditions diagnosed during the hospitalization. Medicare Part A allows up to a maximum of 100day stay in skilled nursing facilities, with the first 20 days completely paid for by Medicare and the remaining 80days paid in part and requiring a co-payment from the beneficiary. The Medicare Part B covers services and products not covered by Part A, but on an outpatient basis. The benefits under this coverage includes physician and nursing services, laboratory diagnostic tests, influenza and pneumonia vaccinations x-rays and blood transfusions. Other services include renal dialysis, outpatient hospital procedures, Immunosuppressive drugs for organ transplant recipients, chemotherapy, limited ambulance transportation and other outpatient medical treatments carried out in a physicians office. This coverage, to some extent, also includes medical equipments like walkers, wheelchairs and mobility scooters for individuals with mobility problems, while prosthetic devices, such as breast prosthesis after mastectomy or eye glasses after cataract surgery are also covered. The recently added Part C and D of the Medicare benefits slightly deviate from the original Medicare concept. After the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 came into effect, Medicare beneficiaries were allowed the option of receiving their Medicare benefits through private health insurance plans if they do not want to go through the original Medicare plans. These became known as Medicare + Choice as beneficiaries could choose any private health insurance plans and have it paid for by Medicare. The Medicare + Choice or Part C arrangement later became known as the Medicare Advantage Plan after the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 came into effect. The Part D plan, on the other hand, covers mainly prescription drugs and anyone in the original Plan A or B is eligible for this plan. However, in other to receive the benefits of the Plan D, a beneficiary must enroll and be approved for a Stand-alone Prescription Drug Plan (PDP) or Medicare Advantage plan with prescription drug coverage (MA-PD). However, because Plan D is effectively operated by private health insurance companies, there are no standardized benefits, like the plan A and B; the private insurance companies could choose to cover some drugs or classes of drugs and not cover others, with the exception of drugs excluded from Medicare coverage. Beneficiaries are therefore restricted to the drugs coverage of the plans they choose (Merlis, 2008; Potetz, 2008). Contributions towards Social Health Insurance Medicare financing, like social health insurance everywhere, is financed through a complex mix of taxes, contributions, co-payments and the likes. The most important source of financing for the Medicare expenditures is through the payroll tax imposed by the Federal Insurance Contributions Act and the Self-Employment Contributions Act of 1954, while other sources of financing includes general revenue through income taxes, a tax on Social Security benefits, and payments from states required for the Medicare drug benefits which started in 2006. In addition to these, beneficiaries also contribute directly to Medicare financing through premiums, deductibles and co-insurance. It is reported that income cases, physician do charge beneficiaries an additional out-of -pocket balance billing to cover for services rendered (Potetz, 2008). The federal payroll taxes are paid by the working population or by the beneficiaries throughout their work history. The tax equals 2. 9 percent of gross wages, with half (1. 45 percent) deducted from the workers salary and the other half paid by the employer. Initially, there was a ceiling on the maximum amount any single person can contribute; however, beginning from 1994, the maximum limit was removed. Self employed people who do not have an employer to cover the other half of their taxes are mandated by law to pay the full 2. 9 percent of their estimated earnings. However, the contributions from the beneficiaries vary considerably depending on the plan and also range from premiums, deductibles, co-payments or in some cases, the balance billing mentioned previously.