Tuesday, October 29, 2019

The Role of The CCTV Surveillance Systems in Reducing Crime in City Coursework

The Role of The CCTV Surveillance Systems in Reducing Crime in City Centers - Coursework Example It has been observed that CCTV helps police and security personnel to fight against terrorism. According Abhishek Agarwal CCTV is an integral in the protection of people and their homes. With all the innovations and technology of this world CCTV is among the most important electronic innovations which has brought dramatic change in people lives. As these system works on more sensitive and sophisticated electronic maneuverings which has made its overall more effective explained by Agarwal. â€Å"CCTV’s are funded by partnerships consisting of local authorities and businesses† (qtd.in Staffordshire police).In the last decade the propagation of CCTV has been observed in town centers. Britain is among the most extensive CCTV coverage country in the world. This is due to the proactive approach which was carried by central government with an investment of 38Million pounds to support 585 local CCTVs explained by Coretta Phillips. CCTV has been located in town centers, shops, shopping centers, hospital, building societies but very few of them are installed in housing projects (Coretta Phillips; Crime prevention studies). In addition to the funds from central government , European government and other local bodies have also invested in installation of CCTV with the major aim is to provide deterrence of crime and disorder. It has also explained by many experts that because of its surveillance capability it has become easy to deploy police and other security perso nnel appropriately. It also reduces public’s fear of crime which in return increases the use of public spaces. These cameras can be installed anywhere within the public areas of these systems noticeably or secretly explained by Michael Greenberger,J.D The ability of basic modern cameras includes zoom, pivot, rotate and focus on objects and people upto 300feet away (Ready;2005).also the video output of these cameras can be monitored , recorded and reviewed at a later time or

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Contrast Between Leadership And Management Management Essay

Contrast Between Leadership And Management Management Essay The paper is about todays leadership and discuss about the impact on leadership from diverse culture. Two leadership models are introduced with application of one famous leader. Mullins (2007) defined leadership as a relationship, which a person influences others on their behaviors. It is always associated with group activities. Many people may be confused with leadership and management. Leadership plays one function of management (Anon., 1997). Management has four major functions, planning, organizing, leading, and controlling (Kinicki Williams, 2006). Leadership has the function of leading. Leaders have followers by influence them, while managers get subordinates and rule them. Vick (2012) distinguished them by regarding managers as the liaisons between individual success and organizations success, and regarding leaders as instigators. Although its very ideal to play a role with the combination of leader and manager, a manager is not necessary to be a leader, vice versa. 1.3 The way leaders influence others One major reason is leaders can influence others by their power. Bartol and Martin (1991) stated that Power is the capacity to affect the behavior of others. It includes legitimate power, reward power, coercive power, expert power, information power, and referent power. By using different type of power, the followers may have different reaction. Hellriegel, Jackson and Slocum (2002) classified the reactions into three types: commitment, compliance, and resistance. Most Likely Response from Followers Type of power Used by Leader Expert Referent Reward Legitimate Coercive Commitment Compliance Resistance 1.4 Leadership with cultural diversity Nowadays, with the development of globalization, leaders are more likely to face followers with different cultures than before. In organizations, whether companies have international activities, they may have a workforce with diverse culture (Den Hartog Dickson, n.d.). 2 A Leader for Example Todays would is heavily affected by the developed technology. PC has become an indispensable part in the life. And the person who made PC universal is the co-found and chairman of Microsoft, Bill Gates. He also founded Bill Melinda Gates Foundation with his wife, Melinda Gates (Bellis, n.d.). Bill Gates is an entrepreneur and a philanthropist as well. He had been the wealthiest man in the world for a long period. Bill Gates has many common traits which also appear in many other successful leaders. The following ones are some of them: Passion on career: Since first exposure to computers in 1968, Bill Gates was inspired passion on computers. He took part in many computer related activities, such as being hired by CCC to find bugs. He even dropped out of Harvard and set up Microsoft to devote into developing software (EVAN CARMICHAEL, n.d.). Spirit of innovation: Bill Gates has the spirit of innovation. Windows 1.0, an operation system which was far cry from existing ones at that time, is a brainchild of Bill Gates (Microsoft, n.d.). Ambition: 3 Leadership Model Leadership models are established for people to follow to 3.1 Transformational Model DuBrin (2010) stated that Transformational leadership focuses on what the leader accomplishes yet still pays attention to the leaders personal characteristics and his or her relationship with group members. Transformational leadership was firstly proposed by James MacGregor Burns in 1978. She conceptualized leadership as either transactional or transformational (Bass Riggio, 2006). The latest transformational model includes four elements, idealised influence (II), inspirational motivation (IM), intellectual stimulation (IS) and individualized consideration (IC), which are also known as 4Is. The variables of transformational leadership (Bass Riggio, 2006) Idealized influence: Idealized influence refers to the leaders generating trust, respect and loyalty from followers by their high level of ethical and moral behaviors. Followers approve the leaders and intend to imitate them. Idealized influence has two aspects, the leaders behaviors and followers perception. Inspirational motivation: Transformational leaders have strong vision for the future. They stimulate followers by giving challenge and meaning to followers work. Leaders make followers involve in imaging fascinating future and drive up followers enthusiasm and optimism. Intellectual stimulation: Transformational leaders encourage followers to be innovative and creative. Individuals mistakes are not to be criticized publicly. New ideas and approaches from followers are encouraged. Individualized consideration: Transformational leaders act as a coach or mentor and lay emphasis on individual followers needs for achievement and development. Different needs and wants of individual are recognized. Leaders prefer a two-way communication with followers and personalized interaction. The full range of leadership model The full range of leadership model is a combination of both transactional and transformational leadership. The components of transactional leadership include contingent reward (CR), management-by-exception (MBE), and laissez-faire leadership (LF). Fig.3.1 The full range of leadershipThe components are evaluated by two dimensions, activeness and effectiveness. Bass and Riggio (2006) stated that optimal leaders display LF leadership most infrequently, and display MBE and CR higher frequently. They choose transformational leadership, 4Is, most frequently. In contrast, poor leaders preform oppositely. Bill gates, a transformational leader Bill gates started Microsoft with a strong vision, a computer on every desk and Microsoft on every computer. He attributed the astounding success of Microsoft to the vision. (EVAN CARMICHAEL, n.d.). 3.2 Situational leadership model 4 Impact from cultural diversity Leaders use a combination of different leadership style. National cultural is one of the important factors which affect the decisions of choosing leadership style (Robbins and Decenzo). With the increasing globalization, the situation of cultural factor becomes more complex for the leaders. 5 Conclusion

Friday, October 25, 2019

Cellular Phones :: Mobile Cell Cellular Telephones Phones Essays

Cellular Phones Cellular phones are a phenomenon that has engulfed people in the nineties. They have become a common occurrence whether you are waiting in line at the super market or in a movie theatre. One professor at Murray State University said, â€Å"Many students are carrying them, I had a student get a call in the middle of a test last semester.† Although many people have accepted the thought of carrying a telephone wherever they go, others have not taken the onslaught of cell phones quite so easily. Cell phones have become part of everyday life, and with the dramatic changes that have been made, there is no sign of their existence diminishing. Today, cellular service is available in all 306 Metropolitan Statistical Areas across the country and all of the 428 Rural Service Areas. Cellular phones carry a diverse group of users. In June 1985, there were about 203,000 cellular phone service subscribers. By June 1989, the number had exploded to 2.7 million subscribers, and by June 1995 there were mire than 26 million subscribers. When cell phones were first introduce, only people with a lot of money had them and the service was very expensive. It was a lot cheaper to stop and use the pay phone than it was to use a cell phone. Now, it is almost as cheap to use a cell phone to make a long distance call as it is to make a long distance call using AT&T. Long distance calling has become a vast market of sales and bribery. A majority of cell phone users have a long distance plan with there cellular package. A lot of college students have cell phones just to make long distance calls home to their friends and family. Depending on the time of day, a person in Fayetteville, Arkansas can call a person in Dallas, Texas for as little as 9 cents a minute. That is very cheap for that type of telephone call. Why have Americans become so attached to cellular phones? Is it convenience, or just the way a person feels driving down the road talking to someone. There is no way to tell. I think it is very important to look at the reason Americans buy and use cellular phones. In a survey taken in 1996, Southwestern Bell Cellular asked 5,000 of its users to fill out a survey.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Compare and Contrast the Spread of Islam Essay

Two of the most significant religions are Islam and Christianity, their spread has effected many places throughout the world. Throughout the years these religions have had substantial impact on the course of history. There are many things alike and different between the spread of Islam in Africa and the spread of Christianity in Europe. During the first two centuries of the existence of each religion there were fundamental differences between the expansion of Christianity and that of Islam, despite early similarities in the way they spread. Christianity existed several centuries prior to the birth of Islam, and by the time Muhammad founded Islam in the Middle East, Christianity had moved its center to Europe, where it had firmly established itself as the official religion. But Christianity originally sprouted in the Middle East after Christ’s resurrection in A.D. 30. The church began in Jerusalem and the surrounding area, and it initially preached the Gospel only to the Jews. It grew quite rapidly for a time—in fact, the book of Acts records the conversion of 3000 Jews in a single, extraordinary day. During this early period, however, Christianity did not expand far beyond Jerusalem and its vicinity. That would soon change. After the first few years of relative peace for the church, a terrible persecution broke out following the stoning of Stephen. Jewish leaders hunted down the followers of Jesus and threw them into prison. At this time many in the church scattered to the surrounding countryside of Judea and Samaria. Christianity’s worldwide expansion was beginning (Nosotro 1). When Islam was founded about 550 years later, around the beginning of the seventh century, its initial experience was strikingly similar to the early experience of the Christian church. In 610 A.D. Muhammad claimed that he received revelations from God that called him to preach a new religion called Islam. At first he began to do so secretly, but after three years he found the courage to proclaim his new faith publicly and gained a growing number of followers. However, his monotheistic message was not well received by many in his polytheistic city, where people were used to profiting from pagan pilgrims. As a result, the early Muslim converts faced persecution, just as the early Christians had. Islam’s growth was limited during this  time, and it did not spread far beyond Mecca. Eventually the harassment forced Muhammad to leave Mecca, so he fled to Medina. Here he gathered many converts who became his militant followers. As with the early Christian church, therefore, persecution caused the first significant spread of Islam (Goddard 128). The histories of Christian and Muslim expansion, however, lost much of their similarity after the points of their initial dispersions caused by persecution. Christians, for example, generally established new churches in cities, intending that the gospel would diffuse into the countryside from there. But this made the spread of Christianity during the first two centuries an essentially urban phenomenon, and it became an urban religion. In contrast, Arabia had very few cities, so Islam spread mostly through villages and rural areas. Another contrast was that the Christian church continued to face persecution throughout its first two centuries, and yet it continued to grow. On the other hand, persecution against Muslims had essentially ended by the time Muhammad died. Many such distinctions made the spread of Christianity and the spread of Islam extremely different (Hutchinson 122). Perhaps the most significant difference between the first two centuries of the expansion of Christianity and Islam was between the methods used to spread their messages. These methods stemmed from the beliefs of each religion. Their contrasting attitudes caused Christians and Muslims to go about conversion in different manners. During their first two centuries, Christians did not force their religion on others but relied on missionaries, preaching, and leading godly lives to draw people to the one true God. Muslims, on the other hand, did not rely solely on preaching to spread their faith—they turned also to the sword. While it is true that many did convert willingly to Islam, the Muslims also conquered vast areas of land in the Middle East and Northern Africa during the seventh and eighth centuries. When they attacked or occupied new territory, they gave its inhabitants three options: convert to Islam, pay a special tax, or die. Under these circumstances many chose to pay the tax, and many others chose to convert to Islam (Nosotro 1). The differing methods of expansion actually helped determine the area each religion would cover as it spread. Christians during the first two centuries traveled from city to city in the Roman Empire, taking advantage of the excellent Roman roads. As a result, the first two centuries saw the Gospel spread primarily in Roman territory, although it was also carried to some other areas, including Ethiopia and perhaps even India. By the year 200 A.D., Christian communities existed throughout the Middle East and Turkey, and there were several in Greece and Italy as well. Islam, however, spread from Saudi Arabia and conquered most of the Middle East and North Africa. Muslims even extended themselves into the Iberian Peninsula and pressed north, nearly reaching Paris before Charles Martel checked their advance by defeating them at the Battle of Tours in 732. Because Islam advanced by force, it met with hostility and resistance in Europe, where Christianity was already strong. But in other areas, such as Egypt and Syria, it was accepted readily by people who had been living under suppressive rule. As a result of its method of expansion Islam could not spread far north into Europe but remained in the territory south of Europe instead (Neander 224). Clearly, the first two centuries of Christian expansion differed greatly from Islam’s first two centuries of expansion, in spite of some early similarities. Although the spread of both religions was initially sparked by persecution, they went about spreading their messages in very different ways. As a result of Christianity’s reliance on missionaries, it spread primarily in the Roman Empire. Since Islam used force to expand its territory, it could not expand far into Europe because it met military opposition. Instead it engulfed most of the Middle East and North Africa. Even today the marks of Christianity and Islam can be seen in the areas where they first spread. After its first two centuries of expansion, Christianity eventually became the official religion of the Roman Empire, and it profoundly influenced the development of Europe and of the Americas. Islam still remains dominant in much of the Middle East and North Africa where it once created an empire (Nosotro 5) . In the beginning these two religions started on the same path of expansion.  But their expansions began to differ more and more throughout the years. The spread of Islam has greatly influenced Africa. Likewise, Christianity had a great influence on Europe. Both these religions have, and will continue to have, major effects throughout history. Work Cited Goddard, Hugh. Christians and Muslims. New York: Routledge, 1995. Hutchinson, Paul. The Spread of Christianity. Boston: Abingdon Press, 1922. Neander, Augustus. General History of the Christian Religion and Church. Boston: Crocker & Brewster, 1854. Nosotro, Rita. â€Å"The Spread of Christianity and Islam†. April 07, 2008 http://www.hyperhistory.net/apwh/essays/comp/cw11christislamexpand.htm.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

The Human Respiratory System: Diagnosis Questions

A)How could an infection in Cari’s nasal passage and pharynx spread into her sinuses? a. Her infection was able to spread to her sinuses because her sinuses became an area that her nasal passages and pharynx could drain into. In here the drainage just sat there and became a breeding ground for bacteria. B)What is the Cough Reflex? Describe the process that Cari’s respiratory system is using to clear her lungs by coughing? a. The cough reflex is used to get things like irritants and fluid which causes us to have sputum out of the nasal passage and pharynx.The cilia or little hairs that are in our trachea is trying to move that mucus and crap from her lungs because they don’t want it there so when there is too much mucus it triggers the cough reflex try to get it out to make more room. C)Which structures found in the terminal bronchioles and alveoli normally would protect Cari’s lungs from infectious pathogens and particulate fluid? a. The structure that wou ld normally help with this are the Macrophages. They are normal found in the terminal bronchioles and alveoli. D)How would the resistance of Cari’s airway be affected by excess mucus and fluid in her lungs? . It would cause her airway to have resistance because of the fluid buildup would cause her airway to be smaller in diameter. With all of the fluid in her lungs some of her alveoli would be under this fluid causing them not to be able to work like they should and causing friction. E)How would Cari’s lung compliance (the effort required to expand the lungs) be altered as her alveoli fill with fluid due to pneumonia? a. It would increase I believe because she will be working harder to gases In and out of the alveoli.F)How would fluid in Cari’s lungs affect her total lung capacity? a. Her overall lung capacity would be lowered or decreased because of all the fluid in there. With the fluid in there it is taking up all the space that she would normally use for air which means she can’t get as much air in her lungs. G)How does the elevation of Cari’s respiratory rate alter her minute ventilation? a. It would be alter becaused it would be raised. It raises it because she has more volume in her lungs. H)Normal blood oxygen saturation levels are greater than 94%.Cari’s blood oxygen saturation level was 90% at the time of her exam and an arterial blood gas analysis done when she was admitted to the hospital revealed her arterial Po2 was 54 mm Hg. How do these clinical findings relate to the internal respiration in Cari’s body? a. First a normal resting oxygen level should be 94% or higher with no oxygen supplements. A normal Po2 on a person resting is 40 mm Hg and if it was someone that was exercise it would be even lower so the 90% and 50 mmHg means that the arteries have too much oxygen. I)Which symptoms Cari has described are due to lack of oxygen and reduced oxygen exchanged at her tissues? . When she said â€Å"P anting like a dog†. This would be a symptom of what is going on. J)As Cari’s Pco2 rose, how was the oxygen –carrying capacity of hemoglobin affected? a. It will decrease since the CO2 will take oxygen place on the bus which means she will be getting more oxygen and the CO2 will be taken and gotten rid of. K)How would you have expected Cari’s decreased Pco2 and alkaline blood pH to have affected her breathing? a. Since her pH and Pco2 is decreasing so is her rate of breathing because she is not having to work as hard.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Libra Harvey Oswald Essays

Libra Harvey Oswald Essays Libra Harvey Oswald Essay Libra Harvey Oswald Essay Don Dillon the reader is able to see the life of Harvey Oswald through the imagery and elements such as diction and point t of view. Deltoid paints a picture of Oswald life and the world he lives in. In the first paragraph (lines 18) Oswald seems to live a normal life where he is interested in things a seventh grade boy would be such as, girls in tight skirts (line 4). However; the reader is able to see the first glimpse of Oswald not being a normal seventh grad r when Dillon describes Oswald smiling in his secret way (line 7) in response to a group of girls gathered by benches. Eventually, Dillon leads into revealing the violent life that surrounded Oswald using 3rd person as the readers guide into Oswald world. It is seen that not only is Oswald a victim to violence where there are disputes of family, (line 14) and rising welts (line 17) on Oswald leg he is also surrounded by it. An Italian man was murdered in the candy, shot five times, his brain dishing the walls near the comic book rack (line 23). Through the narrators voice this murder seems to be treated as entertainment and something to watch, kids trooped to the store from all around to see the traces of grayish spatter (line 24). The reader can sense because the children see watching a crime seen as a form of entertainment that they may be desensitizing because this may be a common occurrence. The tone the author uses gives insight into Oswald search for power, which may have lead him to the assassination of JEFF. It is excerpts from the passage such gripping heavy chains, (line 44) and how do we know the momentum is not insane, line 48) that hints toward the power struggle that is present in Oswald life. This becomes evident in the last paragraph where the tone becomes more serious and the e diction focuses more on words such as power, insane, and edge. In conclusion, it is seen how Oswald appears to live a normal life in the first paragraph where the author focuses on painting a normal picture. However; through 3rd person the narrator is able to point out the violence in Oswald life, and eventual lay the power struggle he faces by using diction to set the tone.

Monday, October 21, 2019

5 Nutty Careers for Writers Showing up Their Skills at College

5 Nutty Careers for Writers Showing up Their Skills at College 5 Nutty Careers for Writers Showing up Their Skills at College Writing skills are very important in many different careers. People who are good at it are more likely to find a high-paying job. From resumes to cover letters to interview thank-you notes, good writing impresses potential employers; once you’ve landed a job, it’s even more important when you’re writing memos and emails, preparing reports, writing copy for a website or blog, and so on. If you’ve got major writing skills, here are some of the best careers for writers you should consider taking up after college. 1. Executive Assistant Do you like creating high-quality products that make someone else look really, really good? Consider becoming an executive assistant, where you will work with the big bosses. Whether it’s constructing a brief, writing an end-of-year report, or composing a thank-you note to an important business associate, your superb writing skills will make the entire company shine. 2. Media Relations Specialist When a company needs to communicate with the press, they employ a media relations specialist to write press releases, create press packets, and otherwise work with journalists to create positive news about their organization. This work is especially important when the company hits a rough patch and needs to smooth things over. Someone who can communicate the value of a brand as well as maintain the loyalty of its customers needs superb writing skills, and you might just be the right person for this particular position. 3. Video Game Copywriter If you think that video games are just for nerds, think again. The video game industry is constantly growing, and as virtual reality (VR) becomes more popular, the need for video game copywriters grows as well. Your job will be to design the narratives that make the game so realistic and engaging, so a natural, conversational style and knowledge about your customer vernacular is really important. 4. Legacy Writer Are you fascinated by the past? Do you love learning about history? Are you great at working with people, especially older ones? You might enjoy being a legacy writer. Legacy writers, also known as personal historians. They write down all of the important events of their and their family members’ lives. They need excellent soft skills and the ability to listen and stay well-organized. If history is really your thing, then legacy writing could be a meaningful and lucrative career path for you. 5. Content Writer Content writers need to be able to write to their audience. That means adopting an appropriate style and choosing topics of interest for their particular demographic. Since content writers frequently make a living by working for a number of different clients, blogs, or websites, they need to be able to quickly adapt to whatever style is needed. They also need to be able to generate truly original content. The final skill needed for content writing is a familiarity with SEO, or search engine optimization; this means that certain keywords need to be included in posts in order to get the most traffic to the site. While there is definitely a learning curve, it is a solid career choice for professional paper writers that is not going away anytime soon. Still think that your writing skills are just good for your student papers? Come on! You even do not know what kind of treasure you have. Start thinking about your future career, as you have such a great variety of positions to choose among.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

3 Cases of Incomplete Parallel Structure

3 Cases of Incomplete Parallel Structure 3 Cases of Incomplete Parallel Structure 3 Cases of Incomplete Parallel Structure By Mark Nichol In each of the sentences below, an action or result is described in comparison or contrast to another, but the phrasing that expresses the parallel between the two phenomena is faulty. Discussion after each example explains the problem, and revisions illustrate solutions. 1. The statue was vandalized in a similar fashion as another statue in Monterey last year. The middle portion of this sentence presents a flawed comparison- â€Å"similar . . . as† is not valid phrasing; to repair the damage, relocate fashion so that it precedes similar and proceed to thoroughly express the comparison: â€Å"The statue was vandalized in a fashion similar to that of another act of vandalization in Monterey last year.† (Alternatively, rephrase as follows: â€Å"The damage was similar to that which occurred in another act of vandalization in Monterey last year.†) 2. U.S. federal regulators are increasingly issuing and enforcing rules in ways that differ from other countries. Here, issuance and enforcement of rules in one nation is compared to other nations themselves rather than to these processes as they occur in other nations; the statement should be reworded to indicate this additional layer of detail: â€Å"U.S. federal regulators are increasingly issuing and enforcing rules in ways that differ from approaches in other countries.† 3. Referring to the United States, his country’s treaty ally but which has criticized his deadly drug crackdown, he elaborated on his comments. In this sentence, the phrase â€Å"one that† better corresponds with the phrase that precedes but than the pronoun which: â€Å"Referring to the United States, his country’s treaty ally but one that has criticized his deadly drug crackdown, he elaborated on his comments.† For a more closely parallel counterpoint, retain which but apply it to the corresponding phrase as well: â€Å"Referring to the United States, which is his country’s treaty ally but which has criticized his deadly drug crackdown, he elaborated on his comments.† Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Grammar category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Inquire vs Enquire50 Idioms About Roads and PathsHow Do You Fare?

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Innovation and Leadership Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 words

Innovation and Leadership - Assignment Example This paper illustrates that as contemporary experts in leadership and academic researchers highlight congruent aspects of the new era and draw attention on potential disruptive points and discontinuities, leadership emphasizes that only innovative, anticipatory, courageous and flexible individuals and organizations are capable to cope with the present uncertain and unpredictable business arena. Development studies confirm that creative companies, able to use innovation in order to improve value creation process or to differentiate products and services surpass their competitors in terms of market share, profitability, growth or capitalization. Innovation and technology management is still a complicated and risky problem: most new technologies fail to be translated into products and services, and those who become products and services not always gain the status of commercial success. In short, innovation can stimulate and strengthen competition, but in order to enhance a strong leader ship, it needs skills and knowledge different from those used for everyday business management. One of the first issues that arise when analyzing innovation consists in the multitude of interpretations that are attributed to the term; many times people even confuse innovation with invention. In a more limited sense considered by many researchers and practitioners, innovation is the process of transforming favorable situations into new ideas and putting these ideas in practices or products widely spread. Innovation does not necessarily mean selling a single significant breakthrough in a certain moment of technical and technological development (radical innovation) but also includes the use of changes (improvements) of less important technological know-how (an improvement or incremental innovation).

Friday, October 18, 2019

Survey and analysis of the IT employment market Report Essay

Survey and analysis of the IT employment market Report - Essay Example Broadly speaking, these include the (1) design, (2) selection, and (3) setting up of computer systems. Systems engineers help organizations in acquiring and installing data processing systems that are affordable as well as workable, and are suited to the existing and anticipated needs. It has been noted that â€Å"systems engineers work at various levels in the design and coordination of large and complex projects known as systems† (Net Industries and its Licensors, 2010). However, fresh graduates are generally placed in the baseline positions. One of the major controlling bodies is Engineers Australia which is â€Å"the national forum for the advancement of engineering and the professional development† (Engineers Australia, 2010) of its members. According to the official website of the organization, â€Å"with more than 85,000 members embracing all disciplines of the engineering team, Engineers Australia is the largest and most diverse professional body for engineers in Australia†; it further claims that engineers who have been given chartered status by it â€Å"are regarded as trusted professionals not only in Australia, but worldwide† (Engineers Australia, 2010). Apart from providing official recognition to member engineers, the main activities of Engineers Australia include (1) advocacy, (2) professional development, (3) program accreditation, and (4) Migration Skills Assessment (MSA). This position is that of â€Å"a SharePoint architect, providing technical and design solutions; the focal point for coordinating and delivering SharePoint user support and optimization; a solution provider, troubleshooting and fixing technical issues; an application integrator, integrating SharePoint with other products; and a project manager, defining, planning and executing SharePoint and infrastructure projects† (IAEA,

EMBA 530 Innovation and Entrepreneurship Discussion initial post Essay - 1

EMBA 530 Innovation and Entrepreneurship Discussion initial post - Essay Example On the other hand, many new ventures provide generic services such as restaurants, barber shops or beauty salons, car repair shops, and similar common (versus radical) products. The fact that ventures tend to fail more than succeed is evident in the tendency of venture capitalists to be more confident in predicting the failure rather than success of proposed ventures (Landstrom, 2007). This myth states that most successful enterprises are serendipitously born from some revelation of a revolutionary new product or technology. Far from the truth, because all enterprises set out with much risk and doubt, and the business owners would have endured several setbacks and would have changed their plans multiple instances before they would have achieved success in their business. In fact, corporate ventures (set up by large incumbent firms) are more successful at pursuing radical innovations than are small entrepreneurial ventures, because of the more advanced technical support and steadier financial assurance from the large corporation (Czarnitzki, Dick & Hussinger, 2010). It is necessary to keep tax rates low so entrepreneurs could reap rewards that would keep them motivated in their enterprises. Actually, this is true to some extent because entrepreneurial profits are lower in states with higher marginal tax rates (Ortmans, 2011). What is not true, however, is that high tax rates are the only disincentives to entrepreneurs. There are many other factors that tend to discourage entrepreneurs or cause enterprises to fail. One of these is complex accounting methods and reporting requirement. Another is the bureaucratic bias against enterprises that compel the firm to hire specialists and professionals to duly advise them. But probably the most important disincentive is the thousands of regulations, such as employment and health-care regulations by federal and state agencies, which erode the scarce capital and investment resources of the small business. These and a

Exclusion Clauses in Business Contracts Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Exclusion Clauses in Business Contracts - Essay Example Certain warranties or guarantees may not actually be written into a contract, yet those contractual terms are implied by statute. For example, the Supply of Goods and Services Act of 1982 makes it clear that when a sale is made, there is an implied condition that the goods that have been supplied are of satisfactory quality. While most businesses are bound to the necessity of providing satisfactory quality of goods, they can protect themselves from very high levels of liability through exclusion clauses. An exclusion clause may be inserted into a contract in order to exclude one party’s liability for breach of contract or negligence . Taking into account the standard terms of a business contract, it must be noted that exclusion Clauses of the Company’s terms and conditions of sale needs to absolve it of any liability on the condition of the goods, such that it will be invalidated only if it is unreasonable. The validity of exclusion clauses has however, been upheld by the Courts in the case of dealing between businesses who are parties of equal bargaining power . Exclusion clauses have greater validity and will be enforced more strictly by the Courts in cases where ordinary consumers are involved . Filing a claim against a business, even if an exclusion clause is contained in a contract, could make it possible to invoke the provisions of the Unfair Contract Terms Act of 1977, which is only relevant in the case of ordinary customers and not for businesses.

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Eric Fromm and his human needs theory Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Eric Fromm and his human needs theory - Essay Example Erich Fromm, who was born in Germany in the year 1900, was exposed to the horrors of the first world war (Boeree, n.d., p.3). The evil nature of the leaders, the mute submission of the civilians to the dictatorship and the way the society functioned developed Erich Fromm’s interest in psychology and social structure. He tried to find the answer to his search for the question, â€Å"what drives man to behave the way he does?†, in the psychoanalytical theories of Freud and social theories of Karl Marx (Boeree, n.d., p.4). However, he found that both the theories are incomplete as they treat man either as an individual or as a social animal (Boeree, n.d., p.4). He thinks that human being’s personal and social aspects are related and hence, his behavior and motives cannot be explained by separating the individual and the social aspects of his life (Boeree, n.d., p.4). Hence, Erich Fromm postulated a theory called ‘Human Needs Theory’, to explain those ne eds of human beings which drive them to behave the way they do and in doing so, has touched every aspect of the human personality(Boeree, n.d., p.10). By explaining how human behavior is not just a result of personal needs but also is a result of his dynamic relationship with existential aspects of life, Erich From has given us one of the most complete theories of human behavior (Boeree, n.d., p.10). According to Erich Fromm, the conditions of the society in which the human being exists, give birth to his needs (Wozniak, 2000, p.44). He does agree with other behaviorists when they say that every human being has basic biological needs like adequate nourishment and shelter, and meeting those biological needs can provide them with a sense of satisfaction

Final Class Project Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Final Class Project - Essay Example As noted by his expert witness, the sacral bedsores and the ulcers first appeared while he was immobile in a Minerva bracer and also when he was on the ventilator. In the nursing profession, patients who face high risk for skin breakdown are to be turned every 2 to 3 hours. The turning of the patients helps in blood circulation throughout the body and eases the pressure on the surface of the skin, which is in contact with the bed. In this case, it can be argued that consistent turning didn’t happen. This is because if the actual turning took place, the patient would not have developed such sores and ulcers. The Florida nurse practice act under section [464.018(8) (h)], clearly discourages the nurses from acting inappropriate and unprofessional. The nurses deviated from the standards as stipulated in the above-mentioned legislation and hence are bound to provide compensation to the patient. It is through the negligence and unethical conduct of the nurses that made Mr. Paul contract the skin lesions. As professionals, they were supposed to provide quality care and hence could have prevented the occurrence of skin lesions on the patient. The nurses’ conduct of unprofessionalism is a deviation from the standards and legislations governing all nurses. A good expert witness must be a good public speaker. Due to the demanding nature of the court proceedings, an expert witness must be able to explain ideas in a clear and precise manner. He/she should also be very conversant with the court terminologies and hence represent the client fully. In addition, he/she should show confidence while speaking because confidence shows professionalism and hence the jury builds trust on your witness account. Therefore, good speaking is necessary for a nurse aspiring to be a good expert witness. It is a requirement that an expert witness should be actively involved in his field of specialization. The active involvement in the medical field

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Eric Fromm and his human needs theory Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Eric Fromm and his human needs theory - Essay Example Erich Fromm, who was born in Germany in the year 1900, was exposed to the horrors of the first world war (Boeree, n.d., p.3). The evil nature of the leaders, the mute submission of the civilians to the dictatorship and the way the society functioned developed Erich Fromm’s interest in psychology and social structure. He tried to find the answer to his search for the question, â€Å"what drives man to behave the way he does?†, in the psychoanalytical theories of Freud and social theories of Karl Marx (Boeree, n.d., p.4). However, he found that both the theories are incomplete as they treat man either as an individual or as a social animal (Boeree, n.d., p.4). He thinks that human being’s personal and social aspects are related and hence, his behavior and motives cannot be explained by separating the individual and the social aspects of his life (Boeree, n.d., p.4). Hence, Erich Fromm postulated a theory called ‘Human Needs Theory’, to explain those ne eds of human beings which drive them to behave the way they do and in doing so, has touched every aspect of the human personality(Boeree, n.d., p.10). By explaining how human behavior is not just a result of personal needs but also is a result of his dynamic relationship with existential aspects of life, Erich From has given us one of the most complete theories of human behavior (Boeree, n.d., p.10). According to Erich Fromm, the conditions of the society in which the human being exists, give birth to his needs (Wozniak, 2000, p.44). He does agree with other behaviorists when they say that every human being has basic biological needs like adequate nourishment and shelter, and meeting those biological needs can provide them with a sense of satisfaction

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Discuss how the entry of foreign banks may prove growth-enhancing in a Essay

Discuss how the entry of foreign banks may prove growth-enhancing in a developing country - Essay Example This essay discusses the concept of globalization that gained increasing acceptance among countries across the world. It encourages nations and their authorities to consider themselves as a part of the international community. It urges countries to increase their contacts with the outside world and engage in various economic exchanges in the global market. Accordingly, nations have undertaken various measures to accomplish this goal. The concept of globalization has also pervaded the international financial sector. An increasing number of international banks have expressed the desire of expanding their business activities across the globe. Their preferred target of location has been the economies of the developing countries. Most of the developing nations used to operate as closed economies and were served only by the domestic indigenous banks. The operations of these domestic banks were restrictive in their scale and could cater to the financial requirements of a limited section of the population. Thus, the international banks found these economies as ideal locations for establishing their business activities. Foreign bank entry in a specific country is defined as the procedure by which international banks establish their operations in an economy. This is primarily accomplished by introducing a new branch or by setting up a subsidiary bank in the host nation. Tschoegi has observed that the current trend of globalization has also been observed in the international banking sector. ... According to the World Bank Report (200), over 50 per cent of the banking sector assets of these nations are owned by international banks. The foreign banking institutions have also expanded their business activities in the developing countries of Asia, Africa, the Middle East region and the Soviet Union. However, the rate of expansion of the banks’ operations has been comparatively slower in the second group of nations. Economists have been tempted to question why the foreign banks have found the developing economies to be suitable locations for expanding their business. Analysts have also evaluated the effects of the foreign bank entries on the developing nations. This paper has attempted to examine the microeconomic impact of the entry of international banks as reflected upon the developing nations. (Clarke, 2001, p.1-5) The Transition Efforts of Developing Countries Ever since the industrial revolution in Europe in the 1780s, countries across the world have experienced dif ferent degrees of industrialization and hence economic development. The rate of economic development of a nation depended on how effectively it adapted its existing economy to the new machine methods of industrial production. Countries which rapidly integrated these new technologies into their prevailing production processes witnessed a high rate of economic growth. Contrarily, nations which were slow to adapt to the innovative production technology experienced a much lower rate of economic progress. In this way, the rate of economic development has varied between the different countries of the world. Economists have classified the countries into three main categories based on their present level of economic development: the developed countries (DCs), the developing countries

Monday, October 14, 2019

Examining The Social Justice Issue And Human Trafficking Criminology Essay

Examining The Social Justice Issue And Human Trafficking Criminology Essay A social justice issue that is a global issue is human trafficking. Human trafficking is a wide spread issue that is affecting many third world countries and developing countries. Human trafficking has become an international concern. One country in particular that is affected by this issue is Thailand. Human trafficking is the trade for woman and children which is similar to slavery. The woman and children can be fooled into human trafficking and can be forced to work for low wages and forced into prostitution. Human trafficking of woman and children started during the Vietnam War (Womens International Network News, 2003). Beginning in the 1980s Thai women began moving to European countries to get involved in the entertainment business which shortly transformed into the trafficking of woman for sexual exploitation (Womens International Network News, 2003). Women and girls were being trafficked all over Europe for prostitution and for the mail order bride business. Woman and children trafficked into Thailand were from Burma, Cambodia, South China, and Laos (Womens International Network News, 2000). During the 1990s around 400,000 woman and children were being trafficked in and out of Thailand (Womens International Network News, 2003). Thailands most known universal problem is prostitution. Thailands Public Health Department estimates that there are about 75,000 prostitutes in Thailand (Womens International Network News, 94). The majority of women involved in prostitution come from poor rural areas. These women have little to no economic opportunities in their home villages and turn to working as prostitutes in urban areas as a way of fulfilling obligations and improving the standard of living for themselves and their families (Womens International Network News, 94). Majority of northern Thai girls turn to prostitution because they feel that they need to repay their parents for giving birth to them and providing them with what they have so far in their lives. The religion that most Thai citizens practice is Buddhism. The Buddhist belief system in northern Thailand is part of the reason for the approval of prostitution. Thai Buddhists believe that each persons soul inhabits many physical bodies over time, with the quality of each life influenced by the souls store of merit (Bower, 2005). Prostitution performed out of the need to aid ones family builds up merit, despite the nature of the job itself (Bower, 2005). In Thailand the first born daughter commonly stays home to help her parents in the home. The second born daughter is traditionally the familys financial helper who turns to any job that they can get. The last born daughter generally receives a higher education than her other sisters (Bower, 2005). Thai Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) estimate that about twenty thousand Burmese women and girls are involved in forced prostitution and half are new recruits that are brought in every year (Womens International Network News, 1994). They women and children normally end up being sent back to Burma after a year or two because they want new recruits. Burmese women and girls make up an estimated 800,000 to 2 million prostitutes that are working in Thailand (Womens International Network News, 1994). Thailand government is guilty of complicity in the trafficking of Burmese women and girls into Thailand for forced prostitution. The Thai government has been failing numerously to punish their own officials and others who are engaged or profit from sex trade (Womens International Network News, 1994). In 1993 the royal Thai government began wrongfully arresting and sending back hundreds of Burmese victims, in violation of Thailands obligations under national and international law instead of punishing officials who are involved. The Burmese women and girls work ten to eighteen hours a day, twenty-five days a month with anywhere from 5-15 clients a day (Womens International Network News, 1994). The women and children were receiving little information pertaining to health care and birth control. Most of the women and girls are virgins when they enter and become HIV positive when they leave. Majority of the prostitutes clients are Thai police officers. Some of the brothels are located near police stations and witness brothel owners paying protection money to local police (Womens International Network News, 94). In 1992 The Thai Prime Minister Chuan Leekpai declared that they would become stricter with official involvement in prostitution (Womens International Network News, 94). Unfortunately this did not include brothel owners, recruiters and pimps from punishment. Authorities were arresting the victims of prostitution and were detaining and abusing them before deporting them. Few women and girls have been rescued and housed by local NGOs prior to their return to Burma (Womens International Network News, 94). The people involved in sex trafficking view women as a cash crop to be exploited and they help with foreign exchange dollars and help pay on the foreign debt. In 1996 an estimate of 6 million sex tourists from all over the world brought in almost 30 billion dollars which is thirteen times more than they make building and exporting computers in Thailand (Leuchtag, 2003). The United Nations has reported that an estimate of 5 to 7 billion dollars a year the sex trafficking business makes. The United Nations believes that about 4 million woman and children and moved illegally from country to country annually. They also estimate that thirty percent of the children being trafficked are minors and a large number may even be under the age of thirteen. During the 1990s, Thailand laws declared that fifteen was the age of consent. A child of the age of twelve to fifteen years old who got paid for sex was viewed as acceptable to abuse them, with or without their consent (Arnold, Bertone, 2002). Italian, Camorra, Chinenese, Triads, Russian Mafia, and Japanese Yakuza are criminal syndicates who are very powerful and have much involvement in the sex trafficking trade of woman and children (Leuchtag, 2003). . These criminal syndicates operate globally and traffick woman from all over the world and bring them in and out of different countries (Leuchtag, 2003). In 1996 a bill was passed on suppression and prostitution of adult woman. Women who were found to be involved in prostitution would be fined. Minors found to be involved in prostitution would be rehabilitated and their parents who were involved would get punished as well (Womens International Network News, 2003). A new bill was passed in 1997 the anti-trafficking bill. This bill protected woman and all children. The bill also protects woman and children of other nationalities who are trafficked into Thailand. Even though the bill was passed traffickers found new ways to recruit women and get them across borders and into work (Womens International Network News, 2003). An international law was enforced that began in 1999 and took enforcement in 2000. The law was an agreed definition of what human trafficking is that took place between 120 countries. The countries wanted to separate issues of trafficking and issues of prostitution (Leuchtag, 2003). The countries also came to an agreemen t on how to prosecute, protect women and children from partaking in trafficking and prostitution, and prevention mechanisms. Once the law was decided the Thai government introduced a memorandum of understanding for the treatment of trafficking of woman and children. It was for the government to take responsibility and legal actions against trafficking and supply assistance for those that have been involved in trafficking (Womens International Network News, 2003). There is a government assistance bill that covers woman who are migrated from another country into Thailand (Womens International Network News, 2003). In 2000 The United Nations created the first legislation to put an end to international human trafficking (Womens International Network News, 2000). The protocol asks for states to cooperate against international organized crime, and for the victims of trafficking to stay in the country they were trafficked to and to enforce laws against sex trade (Womens International Networ k News, 2000). The law defines trafficking as the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms coercion, of abduction of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power, or of a position of vulnerability, or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation (Leuchtag, 2003). In early 2000 a non-governmental organization (NGO) called Project Hope International was created. The NGO is based in Washington, D.C. Project Hope International fights against child sexual exploitation and trafficking of girls and women into the international sex trade (Arnold, Bertone, 2002). The goal of Project Hope International is to communicate between the Thai NGOs and the U.S. government, and American NGOs and the Thai government (Arnold, Bertone, 2002). The organization also would like to facilitate the flow of accurate information. In Thailand there has been a steady decrease in the numbers of Thai women and girls in the sex trade, and an increase in the numbers of females from neighboring countries (Arnold, Bertone, 2002). The reason for the decline is because of positive economic development in Thailand (Arnold, Bertone, 2002). In 2003 investigators entered into one of the provincial capitals brothels searching for women and children trafficked from neighboring Burma (Montlake, 2003). The officials found the owner/owners of the brothel and they were taken into police custody. Six of the 29 women rescued were minors and more than half had been forced into prostitution (Montlake, 2003). Some of the women didnt feel like they were rescued because the money they made was lost and this prevented them from making more money. The U.S., other countries and nations are lending support to anti-trafficking initiatives in Thailand (Montlake, 2003). Since 2000, the U.S. has spent an estimate of atleast $100 million on anti-trafficking aid. Thailands has been improving the way they approach and treat women from other countries caught in trafficking raids. Anti- trafficking organizations next focus will be to bring to justice criminals who profit from human trafficking (Montlake, 2003). The traffickers who dont get caught or do and get away with it without any punishment will turn to finding new women to replace those rescued. Activist report that majority of the women who are rescued return to Thailand and that it is not uncommon for the women or girls to be rescued several times (Montlake, 2003). There are two steps to trafficking. Step one is village to foreign country and step two is town to foreign country. Currently sex traffickers are using the one step pattern to traffick woman and girls (Womens International Network News, 2003). The Thai government has set up a national committee of government organizations and non-government organizations to make policies on trafficking. The Thai government has been working with international and regional agencies to compose against trafficking (Womens International Network News, 2003). Human trafficking is an issue that goes against the feminist theory. The feminist theory involves the liberation of women and girls from discrimination based on gender (Kirst-Ashman, 2008). The main goal or purpose is self-determination for women and girls. There are major themes that follow the feminist theories such as, gender lens, patriarchy, empowerment, consciousness raising, personal is political, importance of process, unity in diversity, and validation (Kirst-Ashman, 2008). Thailand does not follow this theory at all. Women are mistreated and not given much of an option of whether or not they want to become a sex slave or prostitute. In most areas of Thailand women dont have many economic choices for work or their family expects them to turn to sex trafficking/prostitution. It seems like in Thailand they are not educating citizens in school or in general about empowerment and equality of women. It seems that it is a norm for women to turn to sex trade to make money for thems elves and to repay their families. The government and other countries have been trying to enforce and initiate laws to stop trafficking and for women to have human rights as men of Thailand have. Starting in the mid 1990s Thai women wanted to get involved and work closely with non-governmental organizations because of the trafficking of woman and children movement. Women have been getting involved to protect themselves but other people need to jump onboard to help make changes and to make laws permanent and to reinforce them. Women in Thailand in most cases have equal rights in the areas of education, matrimonial property, and the right to choose habitation and employment, and child custody. Laws against prostitution in Thailand continue to not be effectively enforced (Womens International Network News, 94). In majority of the cases of prostitution brothels will pay off local government representatives and police. Poor legislation, police corruption, and cultural norms are commonly blamed for the lack of necessary measures needed to be taken against prostitution (Womens International Network News, 94). Women in Thailand face discrimination and harassment because of their work as prostitutes. International cooperation is an essential component between government agencies and between non-governmental organizations to ensure that agents and brothel owners involved in trafficking across national borders are arrested and prosecuted, and that women who have been trafficked are given the proper assistance and help needed (Womens International Network News, 97). Recommendations to Combat International Traffic in Women is a womens foundation that is involved in preventing trafficking of women and to help the women who have been involved in trafficking (Womens International Network News, 97). From the help from Feminist human rights activist and organizations women have begun to confront their situation and conditions, leave prostitution, speak out against it, reveal their experience, and help other women and children leave as they did ( Leuchtag, 2003). Sex and forced labor trafficking is considered slave trade of the twenty-first century and the greatest human rights test (Stone, 2005). Since 2003, 150 countries have signed the legislation and governments, international agencies, and local non-governmental organizations continue to introduce and start national and regional programs to stop trafficking (Womens International Network News, 2003). Today human trafficking continues to be an issue unresolved. Governments from all over the world need to come together and come up with different approaches to continue to gradually diminish this global issue. Human rights should continue to grow as sex trafficking is prohibited. Nongovernmental organizations today are well-organized, well-established, and well-respected in and outside of Thailand. They have learned to work together with international organizations and networking (Segrave, Milivojevic, 2005). Putting an end to prostitution and women being sexually exploited will give women mo re dignity, increase in human rights, and will be more respected by men.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Commentary on Telephone Conversation by Wole Soyinka Essay examples --

Commentary on Telephone Conversation by Wole Soyinka Wole Soyinka recollects vividly in Ake Mrs. Huti talking about white racism. He was thus mentally prepared to cope with the racism before he left for England. The race problem which has been treated with levity in the immigrant poems is treated from the poet’s personal experience in â€Å"Telephone Conversation.† â€Å"Telephone Conversation† involves an exchange between the black speaker and a white landlady. This poem more than any other is enriched by Soyinka’s experience of drama. It appears that the speaker is so fluent in the landlady’s language that she is unable to make out that he is black and a foreigner. But he, knowing the society for its racial prejudice, deems it necessary to declare his racial identity rather than be rejected later when she discovers that he is black. When he tells her that he is African, she seems stunned and there is â€Å"Silenced transmission of/Pressurized good-breeding.† When she speaks, her voice is Lipstick coated, long gold-rolled Cigarette-holder pipped. These details are evide...

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Megans Law Essay -- essays research papers

In July of 1994, a little girl named, Megan Kanka, was raped and strangled. They found her body near her home in Hamilton Township, New Jersey. The story of thing young girl has shocked the nation. The man responsible for this brutal act is named, Jesse Timmendequas. He had been convicted twice prior to this attack. He also served six years in a treatment facility and had been released. Many people said that he was a quiet man, and this left them to think he was harmless. Unfortunately, this wasn’t the case. This sex offender lived in the same town, as a matter of fact, he lived across the street from the Kanka family. This man was not ready to be released at all. In fact, he shouldn’t have been released. This only left him more of an opportunity to stike again. This information brought the people of Hamilton Township to pass around a petition. The petition stated that a state law be passed informing the citizens of their community that such people live amongst them. This isn’t a rare request. In fact, there have been numerous attempts to bring this law into affect. This should have been done from the beginning, but some people actually think these sex offenders have rights. Well, the people of Hamilton Township didn’t agree. They felt that they should have been told that this sex offender lived within their neighborhood. "The real issue isn’t that the people of Hamilton Township were denied information on this sex offender, but why was this man released after only six...

Friday, October 11, 2019

MG420 DLC Labor Relations Essay

1. Define the term â€Å"collective bargaining† and list and describe four issues that are mandatory components of a collective bargaining agreement. Efficiency, equity, and voice, these are the three primary objectives of labor relations, of employees, and even of some management employees. Workers seem to lean more towards equity and voice at the workplace, while management usually prefers efficiency. The complicated part is attempting to balance all three for an overall idyllic medium at the workplace for both employers and employees. One of the most encouraging guidelines that should be taken in attaining this balancing act would be through collective bargaining. Collective bargaining is a process of negotiating an agreement regarding the terms and conditions of employment through a system of shared responsibility and decision-making between labor and management (Budd 11-12). During a collective bargaining period, workers’ representatives approach the employer and attempt to negotiate a contract which both sides can agree upon, terms can typically be about wages, hours, promotions, benefits, and other employment components as well as procedures for handling disputes arising under it. An example that can better explain the importance of a collective bargaining is in an article called â€Å"Teachers’ union sues Middleton-Cross Plains school district†, (http://host.madison.com/news/local/education/local_schools/teachers-union-sues-middleton-cross-plains-school-district/article_d169fd40-5996-11e0-9c87-001cc4c03286.html), the author discusses how the union representing teachers in the Middleton-Cross Plains School District sued the district Monday over their collective bargaining negotiations. According to the complaint filed in Dane County Circuit Court, the union said the district â€Å"bargained in bad faith† and proposed non-negotiable contract changes including removal of just cause for discipline and discharge, total district discretion of work  hours, elimination of seniority protections, elimination of fair share union dues, modifications/freezes on salary schedules and elimination of compensatory time off. The union also objected to the district proposal that the School Board be the final step in the grievance procedure as opposed to having a third-party arbitrator as the current agreement states (Kittner, 2011). In this article, we see how the teacher’s union could not effectively negotiate an agreement regarding the terms and conditions of employment with the Cross Plain school district and had to sue for a good-faith collective bargaining agreement. According to our textbook, four issues that are mandatory components of a collective bargaining a greement are as follow: (Budd 11-12) Compensation: Wages and benefits Vacations and holidays Shift premiums Profit sharing Employee Rights and responsibilities: Seniority rights Job standards Workplace rules Employer rights and responsibilities: Management rights Just cause discipline and discharge Subcontracting and safety standard Dispute resolution and ongoing decision making: Grievance procedures Committees and consultation Renegotiation procedures The two mandatory components of a collective bargaining agreement I would like to discuss in more detail are employee rights and grievance procedures. According to our textbook one of the four types of employees’ rights frequently granted in union contract is â€Å"just cause discipline and discharge†, an employee can be disciplined and discharged only for â€Å"cause† or â€Å"just cause†. As such, employees have the right to insist there be valid, job-related for reasons for discipline and dismissal (Budd 310). In an  article called â€Å"Is Poor Performance â€Å"Just Cause† for Discharge?†, provides a good example of employees’ rights â€Å"just cause discipline and discharge. The article discusses how the Indiana Court of Appeals ruled in favor of an employer who had discharged an employee for poor performance. The court ruled that the employees’ poor performance constituted a â€Å"breach of duty reasonably owed the employer† which is one of the seven reasons that constitute â€Å"just cause† for discharge under Indiana law and contracts (Lyman, 2012). The article also discusses how employer tried to improve the employees’ behavior. â€Å"The employee’s supervisors repeatedly discussed with employee the mistakes†¦but the mistakes â€Å"would happen over, and over, and over again.† Co-workers had continuing problems with the employee where she would always blame others for her problems. Despite counseling on multiple occasions, she showed no improvement† (Lyman, 2012). The second mandatory component of a collective bargaining agreement I would like to discuss, is grievance procedures. According to our textbook, a grievance is generally defined as a claim by an employee that he or she is adversely affected by the misinterpretation or misapplication of a written company policy or collectively bargained agreement. To address grievances, employers typically implement a grievance procedure (Budd 321). Most collective bargaining agreements include procedures for filing and resolving grievances. An article from the Daily Freeman News called â€Å"Saugerties school board wants grievance discussion with teachers’ union instead of arbitration† (http://www.dailyfreeman.com/general-news/20140215/saugerties-school-board-wants-grievance-discussion-with-teachers-union-instead-of-arbitration), discusses a grievance raised during a Board of Education meeting which involves a guidance counselor in the junior high school who has 329 students, which exce eds the 250 maximum student load. The union, in filing its grievance, asked that the student load be reduced and the counselor receive additional pay for the period in which it exceeded 250 (Zangla, 2014). Within a union environment, the processes will typically involve the employee, union representatives and members of the employer’s management team. The article goes into detail how they will be meeting and try to avoid arbitration. â€Å"Board President George Heidcamp said trustees want to resolve  the grievance with the teachers’ union without going to arbitration, which could cost taxpayers $10,000 or more† (Zangla, 2014). In summary, collective bargaining centers on the basic components of the system where employees, employers and union members meet in order to find what works best and find a solution. A key note to successful collective bargaining is the state of affairs and persons who are entrusted to negotiate should have the traits of patience, trustworthiness, friendliness, integrity, and fairness. Collective bargaining through its mandatory components have enabled many unions and labor management to either agree or take the next steps in trying to get a fair and profitable agreement for both parties. Works Cited Budd, John W. Labor Relations: Striking a Balance. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2013. Print. Kittner, Gena. Teachers’ union sues Middleton-Cross Plains school district. 28 Mar 2011. Web. 19 Apr 2014. . Lyman, Stephen W. Is Poor Performance â€Å"Just Cause† for Discharge? 31 Aug 2012. Web. 19 Apr 2014. . Zangla, Ariel. Saugerties school board wants grievance discussion with teachers’ union instead of arbitration. 15 Feb 2014. Web. 19 Apr 2014. . 2. List and discuss three U.S. laws that support collective bargaining, and three examples of employer unfair labor practices. We have learned that collective bargaining is the negotiations involving the representatives of labor and management for terms and conditions of employment that will apply to the employee. It is also important to understand labor laws that support collective bargaining that protect union activity to balance efficiency, equity and voice. According to our textbook, the three U.S. laws that support collective bargaining between labor and management, are the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 (The Wagner Act), the Labor Management Relations Act of 1947 (The Taft-Hartley Act), and Labor Management Reporting and Disclosure Act of 1959 (The Landrum- Griffin Act) (Budd 109). The National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) of 1935, also known as the Wagner Act builds upon previous legislative attempts to promote and protect workers’ abilities to unionize in the private sector if they so choose. It guarantees the right of employees to organize and bargain collectively with  their employers, and to engage in other protected organized activity. Employees covered by the Act are also protected from certain types of employer and union misconduct. (Budd 119). In an interesting Wall Street Journal article called â€Å"Volkswagen’s Union Gamble† (http://www.no2uaw.com/vws-gamble.html), provides a good example of the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) at work. The article discusses how Volkswagen and the United Auto Workers union are trying to get workers from Chattanooga, TN plant to vote on unionizing. According to the article, â€Å"Volkswagen workers in Chattanooga are voting this week on whether to become the first foreign-owned unionized auto plant in the American South. The United Auto Workers union desperately needs the victory and is getting help from the National Labor Relations Board and even from Volkswagen, which may come to regret selling out their workers to the union† (WSJ, 2014). The editorial also goes into detail how the UAW tried to sidestep a secret-ballot election via a dubious â€Å"card check.† There logic for this was due to the fact that the Wagner Act allows a union to be certified if a majority of workers sign authorization cards and an employer acquiesces. Unfortunately, the workers argue that non-union plants have lower production costs, more workforce flexibility and less labor strife. They also argue â€Å"Volkswagen’s un-neutral â€Å"neutrality agreement† with the UAW is arguably a violation of Taft-Hartley’s prohibition on employers giving a â€Å"thing of value† to a union seeking to organize its employees† and filed charges with the NLRB alleging that the UAW had lied to workers and bullied them into signing cards (WSJ, 2014). The debate about Volkswagen’s violation of the Taft-Hartley Act is ongoing and it takes us to our second U.S. laws that support collective bargaining. The Labor Management Relations Act of 1947, which is also known as the Taft-Hartley Act amends and adds to the Wagner Act in diverse and far-reaching ways and can be divided into three categories, â€Å"Restrictions on union actions, Enhanced rights of individuals and employers, and New dispute resolution procedures† (Budd 128). The purpose and policy of the Taft-Hartley Act was â€Å"to prescribe the legitimate rights of both employees and employers, to provide orderly and peaceful procedures for preventing the interference by either with the legitimate right of the other, to protect  the rights of individual employees in their relations with labor organizations and to protect the rights of the public in connection with labor disputes affecting commerce† (Budd 127). The act also empowers the U.S. president to petition a court to suspend a strike deemed a national security strike (Budd 128). In an article from the New York Times called â€Å"Dockworkers Strike Threatens to Close the East Coast Ports† (http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/27/business/dockworkers-strike-threatens-to-close-east-coast-ports.html?_r=0), discusses how â€Å"dockworkers are flexing their muscles again, threatening a strike that would shut seaports from Massachusetts to Texas. It would be the first such coast wide strike since a two month walkout in 1977 that paralyzed the flow of tens of billions of dollars of imports – and the nation’s retailers and other businesses fear a painful replay if the 14,500 dockworkers make good on their threats† (Greenhouse, 2012). The strike threat has so alarmed corporate America that of more than 100 business groups which wrote to President Obama to urge him to intervene to push the two sides to settle – and, if need be, to invoke his emergency powers under the 1947 Taft-Hartley Act to bar a strike (Greenhouse, 2012). Eventually the strike was averted, the two sides agreed to sit down with the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service to discuss extending the long shore workers’ contract, during which time both negotiations and port operations would continue. Another U.S. law that supports collective bargaining is the Labor Management Reporting and Disclosure Act of 1959 (The Landrum- Griffin Act) deals with the relationship between a union and its members. The Landrum- Griffin creates a bill of rights for union members that guarantees all union members equal rights of participation in internal union affairs, including voting and expressing views† (Budd 131). Part of the bill of rights of this act specifically mentions that all union members are entitled to receive a copy of the collective bargaining agreement. Additionally, the Landrum-Griffin Act tries to hinder corruption and racketeering in three ways. â€Å"First, unions and their officer are required to disclose financial records by filing reports with the U.S. Department of Labor. Second, the Landrum-Griffin act restricts the use of union trusteeships. Third, the Landrum-Griffin Act establishes the fiduciary responsibility of union leaders† (Budd 132-133). In a Wall Street Journal article titled â€Å"Obama Tries to Stop Union Disclosure† asserts how union membership peaked in the 1950s, when more than one-third of American workers belonged to a union. Approximately just about 7.6% of American private-sector workers belong to a union. A Rasmussen Research survey conducted in March found that 81% of nonunion members do not want to belong to a union. (WSJ, 2009). The response by union leaders and their Democratic allies to declining union membership is the Employee Free Choice Act. To increase unionization, it would deprive workers of private balloting in organizing elections, and it would substitute a signature-card process that would expose workers to coercion. The bill would also deny workers the right to ratify, or not ratify, labor contracts drafted by government arbitrators when negotiations in newly unionized workplaces exceed the bill’s rigid timetable (WSJ, 2009). Unfortunately, we see that instead of the democratic government abiding by the Landrum-Griffin Act, it is trying to create laws to appeal some of the current laws that protect union members from the unions or government. In the three above cases, the U.S. laws support collective bargaining, as well as protect from employer unfair practices. An unfair labor practices are defined according to our textbook as an illegal employers’ actions (Budd 122). The Wagner Act or the National Labor Relations Act has specific guidelines that both employees and employers must follow in order to maintain a positive work environment. At times, unfair labor practices do occur and place the workers in chaos. One of the unfair labor practice prohibits employers from interfering, restraining, or coercing employees who are exercising their Section 7 rights. Circulating antiunion petitions, using unnecessary surveillance to watch union activities, threatening employees with being fired, demoted, or causing physical harm, and bribing employees with wage increases are examples of Section 8(a)(1) known as the â€Å"universal enforcer† because it covers all employer violations of employee rights (Budd 123). The second unfair labor practice is known as Domination of a Labor Organization or Company Union Ban. Senator Wagner wanted to avoid management â€Å"handling† unions, preventing workers from forming legitimate, independent unions. Employers that initiate the formation of a union, provide financial support to a union, create a  nonunion employee representation plan, or create a labor-management committee that discusses wages and working conditions with some give and take with management is in direct violation of Section 8(a)(2) (Budd 123-124). The third unfair labor practice deals with employers discriminating to encourage or discourage union membership. Examples include firing a union supporter or someone trying to form a union, transferring a union supporter to a less desirable job or promoting an employee because of opposing a union, refusing to hire a potential employee because of past union participation or simply closing a part of a business because of antiunion reason s are examples of Section 8(a)(3) (Budd 123-124). A good example of two unfair labor practices is in an article called â€Å"1981 Strike Leaves Legacy for American Workers† (http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5604656), in which the author discusses how over 30 years ago, former President Ronald Reagan set a defining moment in the history of the aviation, his presidency, and labor relations by firing thousands of unionized air traffic controllers for illegally going on strike. In February 1981, new contract negotiations open between Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization (PATCO) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), which employs the air-traffic controllers. Citing safety concerns, PATCO calls for a reduced 32-hour work week, a $10,000 pay increase for all air-traffic controllers and a better benefits package for retirement. Contract negotiations with the FAA stall (Schalch, 2006). Then in August 1984, strike action began with 13,000 employees walking off the job in various locations, halting operations as busy airports including Dallas, Fort Worth, Atlanta, and Chicago. At that point, then President Reagan intervened sending a warning statement that anyone not returning to work within 48 hours would be terminated. Two days later most of the striking employees were fired. They were replaced by employees not participating the protests and military air traffic controllers (Schalch, 2006). As I understand the employer unfair practices, the firing of the unionizes traffic controllers and the hiring of new traffic controllers was a direct violation of Sections 8(a)(1) and (3), threatening employees with job loss, firing a union supporter, and promoting a union opponent to a better job. In conclusion, the three labor laws have shed some much needed light as to the rights of both employers and employees, not to mention has also set some much needed boundaries as to how far each side can go without treading into illegal or unfair territory. These laws must be put into place to regulate both sides equally and it also provides no confusion as to the right and wrong paths one must take when leading to collective bargaining. The examples of unfair labor practices by employers provide a clear view as to the lengths some employers will go to in an attempt to avoid or divert a union being organized. The Wagner Act has specific sections in its law that provides employers the knowledge of what is acceptable behavior and what is not. Works Cited Budd, John W. Labor Relations: Striking a Balance. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2013. Print. Greenhouse, Steven. Dockworkers Strike Threatens to Close East Coast Ports. 26 Dec 2012. Web. 22 Apr 2014. . Schalch, Kathleen. 1981 Strike Leaves Legacy for American Workers. 2006 Aug 2006. Web. 22 Apr 2014. . Wall Street Journal (Editorial): Volkswagen’s Union Gamble. 12 Feb 2014. Web. 20 Apr 2014. . 3. Describe the process of establishing and decertifying a collective bargaining unit in the workplace. As discussed earlier in this research paper, the definition of collective bargaining is technically when a group of employees negotiate as a unit with their employer over pay, benefits and working conditions. Chris Langford, a strategist and organizer at the International Federation of Professional and Technical Engineers (IFPTE), (http://www.ifpte.org/news/details/Why-Collective-Bargaining-Rights-Are-Important), states that the principle stems from the idea that as a group, employees have more strength or bargaining power if they collaborate than they do if they try to negotiate with their employer individually. Because of its basis in collaboration, collective bargaining is inherently a democratic process since a majority of employees select the subjects they bargain over and vote on whether they agree to a contract (Langford, 2012). In our textbook the author, discusses how a bargaining unit is a group of several workers involved in a similar industry or occupational field that, on the determination of the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB), can engage in collective bargaining (Budd 199). This group also helps the union represent the other employees in the industry to handle any issues, improprieties, or unfair work ethics or practices that may come to light. To establish a bargaining unit, certain laws and doctrines must be strictly adhered to, the worker group must also have first established an organized union the deals with their specific industry. The union represents the group exclusively, and deals with all negotiations and discussions to further the workers’ causes. Once a union has been formed, the NLRB, looks at several criteria before allowing part of the worker group to be recognized as a bargaining unit. The NLRB reviews the workers’ mutual interests in working conditions, wages earned, training protocols, and number of hours in a work week. They also look at the management scope, the public interest factor, and the worker group’s history of bargaining in the past through other associations (Budd 200). According to an article called â€Å"WNBA and Players Association Sign New Collective Bargaining Agreement† , the Women’s National Basketball Association (WNBA) and the Women’s National Basketball Players Association (WNBPA) announced that they have entered into a new eight-year collective bargaining agreement. The new collective bargaining agreement includes an additional 12th roster spot, salary cap increases and reduced revenue sharing thresholds, making it more likely that the players will share in league revenue growth. In the article, we can see how an established a collective bargaining unit represent its specific employees (women basketball pl ayers) to conduct collective bargaining with their employers (WNBA, 2014). So what happens if the collective bargaining unit (union) employees no longer want to be represented? To determine the wishes of the majority of the employees, the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) allows employees to call for a special election to get rid of the union as their â€Å"exclusive representative.† This is called a Decertification election.

Thursday, October 10, 2019


Arguments based on emotion work in different media by getting the audience to feel a sense of what the advertiser is trying to convey. The effectiveness of these arguments differ based on the promoter and what they are trying to present. For example, if the promoter is trying to get a message across through a book, they have to include something that might interest readers. Unlike books, if they are trying to advertise something through television, they include something that might interest people who like watching T.V. , such as â€Å"couch potatoes† etc. The approach for magazines is different. If someone is already reading a magazine they are in for ads therefore it is much easier to grab their attention. However, arguments based on emotion vary significantly on websites. You can go from a positive response to an extremely negative response in a few seconds, therefore you must be careful. Certain things an ad might portray may go against what someone believes and will insti gate hate† comments which technically may not deserve that type of classification.Others may be able to receive the emotion the ad is trying to present and therefore the ad can be successful. Newspapers are an emotionally colder source than television news in my perspective because when you are watching the news, the reporters can sound a little enthusiastic, delivering the news in a hopeful manner. When reading the newspaper, you can only Interpret It how you envision It and so If the tone of the paper Is depressing, then It would be emotionally colder.

Wednesday, October 9, 2019

Hong Kong’s Environmental Problems and Solutions

lmovementHong Kong’s environmental problems and solutions Hong Kong is one of the top financial centers in the world. Thus, the environmental quality of Hong Kong is very important. It is because the environmental quality is indirectly linking to the image of Hong Kong. Moreover, the living standard of Hong Kong residents is also under influencing of the environmental quality. However, Hong Kong is now surviving serious environmental problems. Poor air quality, noise problem and heavy traffic loads are the three important problems of Hong Kong.The members of Hong Kong should try their best to tackle these problems. Problem of air quality in Hong Kong is serious so we need to try our best to solve it. Three are two main reasons that causing the serious air pollution problem in Hong Kong. One of them is the increasing number of vehicles. Another is the huge amount of pollutants from industrial production. First of all, vehicle is a significant source of air pollution in Hong Kon g. Commercial vehicles like buses and trucks always emit a huge amount of pollutants.These pollutants contain large amounts of particulates that worsen the air quality. Secondly, the pollutants from industrial production are giving a helping hand in causing the air pollution problem. During the process of industrial production, energy conversion is always taken place. However, energy conversion operation will give out a certain amount of pollutant. For example, nitric oxide is formed when industrial combustion takes place. Air pollution has deep influence on human as well as the natural environment. For the human, the main influence is the health effect.American Academy of Family Physicians (2010) explained that people who affected by air pollution will suffer from difficulty in breathing, coughing and even worsen their respiratory disease. In more serious case, the effect of air pollution may induce the permanent disease. For the natural environment, air pollution will intensify th e problem of global warming. As there are a lot of particles emitted to the air, the heat released from the land will trap by these particles. Thus, the earth will become more and more hot. Once the global temperature is increase, more energy is generated in order to reduce the temperature.However, more particles are emitted through the generate process. Thus, it will become a cycle. As we know the seriousness of the air pollution, we should take actions to deal with the problem. â€Å"The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government gives high priority to controlling both street-level air pollution and smog. † (Environmental Protection Department, 2011) To reduce the pollutants emitted from vehicles, the Environmental Protection Department (2011) pointed out that the government has adopted a tighter fuel and vehicle emission standards and strengthens vehicle emission inspections against smoky vehicles.These measures can effectively control the pollutants emission from vehicles. One the other, the waste gas giving out from industrial production should also be regulated. The government can install system on power generation plant and develop green energy power to reduce the emission of suspended particles. As a result, pollutants from industrial production can be largely reduced. We should take immediate actions to solve the serious noise problem in Hong Kong. As Hong Kong's economy has grown in  recent decades, so too has the noise that comes from transport, construction, commercial and industrial sources in this compact, densely populated city. † (GovHK, 2011) There are two main sources of noise pollution in Hong Kong. They are noise from transportation and industry. Transportation is the main source of noise pollution. Because of their mobile nature, the areas under their influence can be extended. Vehicles produce the most extensive noise effect compare to trains and aircrafts. It is because it is difficult to control the noise produced from vehicles.The source is thus difficult to chase as they are mobile. Heavy trucks, higher speed cars and frequent stop and start of cars always produce higher level of noise. On the other hand, industry is another important source of noise. In construction industry, high level of noise is always produced from the use of equipments. There are piling, compressor and bulldozers that produce high level of noise. Moreover, noise will also produced in manufacturing industry. During the operation of machines, noise is generated. Noise has more impacts than we expected. It will affect our health, daily life and environmental quality. The most immediate and acute health effect of excessive noise is impairment of hearing. † (Singh. N, 2004) Prolonged exposure to noise can damage our ear cells. This may caused temporary or even permanent hearing loss. Also, noise can violate our cardiovascular system. It will make us hard to focus and concentrate as well as causing headaches. For the effect on our daily life, people’s working efficiency will be affected. Under noisy environment, teaching and learning will become less effective. Teachers and students need to pay more effort on concentrating on their work.To tackle the noise problem, the Environmental Protection Department (2011) purposed to reduce traffic noise through careful land use planning. Better road planning will divert the noisy road from the residential areas and thus reduce the disturbance to the residents. Lastly, there is an urged to deal with to problem of traffic congestion. â€Å"The problem of traffic congestion in Hong Kong is caused by the lack using of public transport† (Lo I, 2004). Hong Kong is such a small place but there are a few million vehicles on the roads. We can see that there are a lot of private vehicles running on the road everyday.The increasing of private vehicles increases the demand of the usage of the roads. As more and more vehicles are riding on the roads at the same time, the road system will then cannot afford. Traffic congestion occurs. Another cause of traffic congestion is less well-planned road system in Hong Kong. In Central, traffic congestion is common. It is because of the poor road system. Many vehicles will rush to Central at the rush hour, but the poor road system cannot help to divert the vehicles flow rate. So many vehicles are concentrated in Central and caused traffic congestion.What are the impacts of traffic congestion? Firstly, Lo I. (2004) claimed that people are needed to pay heavy time cost for traffic congestion. The wasting of time may lead to the loss of business, late for work and school. So traffic congestion can also cause the economics loss. In addition, the image of Hong Kong will also be affect. Hong Kong is an international financial center that gives the world an image of efficient. However, traffic congestion will make the damages of this image. People will wonder why Hong Kong, such a well-developed c ity, is having the problem of traffic congestion.So, measures should be taking to relieve this problem. The government should have a better road planning in order to release the heavy traffic burden in Central. Education cannot be avoided in order to educate the citizen to use more public transport. To conclude, poor air quality, noise problem and traffic congestion are the three issues that the government needs to deal with. These problems are not only affected the people’s standard of living but also the image of Hong Kong. It is no doubt that the Hong Kong people should focus on these problems and solve them together.

Australian Health I ssue Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Australian Health I ssue - Essay Example Despite this fact, however, problems in workforce shortages threaten to compromise the delivery of adequate health care in the country. The mounting problems in this sector have recently sought to be addressed by the National Health Reform Agreement arrived at by the Council of Australian Governments (COAG) in April 2010, the latest in a series of health care reforms pursued in the country over the decades. The agreement guarantees provision by the Commonwealth of no less than $16.3 billion in additional growth funding to the States and Territories, within the period 2014 to 2020 (AHMC, 2011). The principal directions are provided by the eight streams identified in the COAG agreement, and this paper shall treat on the sixth stream concerning the health care workforce. While this discussion on the health care providers is relevant across disciplines, the focal point shall be on the nursing profession, inasmuch as nurses and midwives comprise 55% of the entire health workforce in Austr alia (Bryce, 2009). The Sixth Stream – Workforce The best-laid plans, though well-funded and sufficiently provided with the necessary logistics, could not hope to attain success if the available manpower pool is inadequate or lacking in the necessary skills. Workforce shortages have plagued the Australian health care system in the last decade, for which reason the development of a skilled and adequate workforce has been specified as the Stream 6 in the Health Care Reform plan presented by the COAG agreement. The stated stream purpose is â€Å"to improve Australians’ access to health and aged care services by expanding the health care workforce and providing health professionals with the skills and training opportunities necessary to delivery Australia’s future care benefits† (NHHN, 2010, p. 40). According to the Agreement, substantial resources are to be provided by the Commonwealth in the realisation of the objective of this Stream. In the plan, the Comm onwealth has committed to invest over the next four years a total sum of $1.2 billion, for the purpose of providing training to general practitioners and specialists; for supporting nurses working in the areas of general practice, care for the aged, and those working in rural areas; and for providing assistance and support to other professionals in allied fields rendering service in rural communities (NHHN, 2010). In the plan, the Commonwealth commits to fund 60% of costs of staff training in public hospitals, for which the following targets have been articulated (NHHN, 2010, p. 42): 1. Delivery of 5,500 new general practitioners (GPs) throughout the coming decade, amounting to a total of $345 million for the first four years; the target calls for 1,375 additional GPs who are either practicing or in training as of 2013; 2. Designation of 975 places annually as training ground for future physicians in their postgraduate training period, to experience how it feels to have a possible c areer in general practice; this requires $150 million as of 2012; 3. Provision of 680 additional specialist doctors spread throughout the coming ten years, for which an estimated $145 million shall be provided for the first four years; 4. Creation of a comprehensive and integrated package of programs in order to provide greater support to health profession