Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Endeavors of Envy- A Separate Peace Essays

Endeavors of Envy- A Separate Peace Essays Endeavors of Envy- A Separate Peace Essay Endeavors of Envy- A Separate Peace Essay Endeavors of Envy- A Separate Peace BY sabYGtng19 Endeavors of Envy William Penns quote that the Jealous are troublesome to others, but a torment to themselves illustrates the deleterious effects of suppressing Jealousy. Enw, when suppressed, corrupts an individuals perspective, creating the alternative. It can trigger a corroding of the mind, causing impulsive actions. John Knowles A Separate Peace analyzes Gene Forresters inability to prevent himself from harboring Jealousy within, thus resulting in a thin line between hallucination and reality. Finnys athleticism and humility embed a seed of Jealousy within Gene. Genes bafflement becomes evident when he realizes Phineas endeavors are mere perfection; however, he refuses to boast his accomplishments. Phineas humility towards his feats infuriates Gene, causing him to see himself as the epitome of inadequacy and Finny as the essence of good (Flum 6). Once this feeling is developed, envious thoughts begin to overtake Gene. Phineas accomplishments [take] root in [Genes] mind growing] rapidly in the darkness where [he is] forced o hide the raging emy to which Gene is beginning to succumb (Knowles 44). Gene realizes Phineas has never been Jealous of him, causing Gene to seek revenge. Upon the realization that Phineas is not Jealous, Genes subconscious mind leads him to believe he is not of the same quality as [Phineas] (Knowles 59). Gene is adamant in his refusal to the truth, and this begins to fuel his shadow self. Envy begins to boil over inside of Gene causing impulsive action s. His action is to physically bring down the idol, to test the limits of Finnys incredible athletic ability, nd because Phineas fails the test, Gene becomes confused and must now reevaluate himself and his idol. Genes enw leads to a metaphoric death which in turn becomes a rebirth of his identity. Idealizing and de-idealizing Phineas forces Gene to transform into an utterly confused false self. In order to forge his own identity and be free, Gene must confront reality, and the walls [he and Phineas] have erected around themselves [must] crack (Flum). The rebirthing process is difficult because Gene continues to ave Jealous thoughts, taking over the vast span of his mind and controlling him. Resulting from Genes Jealousy and impulsive actions, Phineas dies along with his vitality and humility. Finnys literal death doubles as a metaphoric death for Gene where he cannot escape the feeling that this [is his] own funeral (Knowles). John Knowles A Separate Peace illustrates how Gene is his own worst enemy, causing him to lose himself in the process of idealizing Phineas. His challenge is depicting what is reality and what is a hallucination. His idols humility to his feats causes Gene to seek revenge for self pleasure in order to test the idol; however, his failure results in a literal death to the idol and a metaphoric death to himself. Flum, et al. Relational processes and identity formation in adolescence: The example of A Separate Peace. Genetic, Social General Psychology Monographs 121. 4 (1995): 1-11. Academic Search Premier. Ebsco. 28 Aug. 2013.. Knowles, John. A Separate Peace. New York: Scribner, 2003. Penn, William. Brainy Quote. 6 Sept. 2013

Saturday, November 23, 2019

The Chemistry of How Borax Works as a Cleaner

The Chemistry of How Borax Works as a Cleaner What Is Borax? Borax (also known as sodium borate decahydrate; sodium pyroborate; birax; sodium tetraborate decahydrate; sodium biborate) is a natural mineral compound (Na2B4O7 10H2O). It was discovered over 4000 years ago. Borax is usually found deep within the ground, although it has been mined near the surface in Death Valley, California since the 1800s. Although it has numerous industrial uses, in the home borax is used as a natural laundry booster, multipurpose cleaner, fungicide, preservative, insecticide, herbicide, disinfectant, dessicant, and ingredient in making slime. Borax crystals are odorless, whitish (can have various color impurities), and alkaline. Borax is not flammable and is not reactive. It can be mixed with most other cleaning agents, including chlorine bleach. How Does Borax Clean? Borax has many chemical properties that contribute to its cleaning power. Borax and other borates clean and bleach by converting some water molecules to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). This reaction is more favorable in hotter water. The pH of borax is about 9.5, so it produces a basic solution in water, thereby increasing the effectiveness of bleach and other cleaners. In other chemical reactions, borax acts as a buffer, maintaining a stable pH needed to maintain cleansing chemical reactions. The boron, salt, and/or oxygen of boron inhibit the metabolic processes of many organisms. This characteristic allows borax to disinfect and kill unwanted pests. Borates bonds with other particles to keep ingredients dispersed evenly in a mixture, which maximizes the surface area of active particles to enhance cleaning power. Risks Associated With Using  Borax Borax is natural, but that does not mean it is automatically safer for you or for the environment than man-made chemicals. Although plants need boron, too much of it will kill them, so borax can be used as an herbicide. Borax may also be used as an insecticide to kill roaches, ants, and fleas. In fact, it is also toxic to people. Signs of chronic toxic exposure include red and peeling skin, seizures, and kidney failure. The estimated lethal dose (ingested) for adults is 15-20 grams; less than 5 grams can kill a child or pet. For this reason, borax should not be used around food. More commonly, borax is associated with skin, eye, or respiratory irritation. It is also important to point out that exposure to borax may impair fertility or cause damage to an unborn child. Now, none of these risks mean that you shouldnt use borax. If you do a bit of research, you will find risks associated with all cleaning products, natural or man-made. However, you do need to be aware of product risks so that you can use those products properly. Dont use borax around food, keep it out of reach of children and pets, and make sure you rinse borax out of clothes and off of surfaces before use.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

The effect of national culture on Commitment forms within Essay

The effect of national culture on Commitment forms within international joint venture - Essay Example the huge population growth which had occurred in the Arab world due to work opportunities related to oil supplies resulting in considerable international migration to countries such as Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. Such immigration is mainly from surrounding countries (Ali, 1986). Such large-scale immigration occurs because there is a shortage of national labour means there is a need to seek non-national workers who then end up making national a minority within their own country (Ali, 1986). Therefore this situation results in making the national culture a minority within its own environment and has significant implications for that culture. Ali provides data to prove this assertion. For example, the national population living in the United Arab Emirates has declined from 36 per cent in 1975 to 17 per cent in 1986 (Ali, 1986). In 1986 it was predicted that the proportion of nationals living in Saudi Arabia would fall to 9 per cent in 1990 and 2.5 per cent in 2000 (Ali, 1 986). In comparison in 1983 the Indian population living in the United Arab Emirates numbered 300,000, which was one and a half times the number of nationals living in the country (Ali, 1986). Ali went on to explore the reasons why countries such as Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates depended on non-national workforces. Some factors proposed by Ali (1986) included the relatively young age of the population of the Arab Gulf States’. For example in 1975 45 per cent of the populations of these states were under 15 (Hamady, 1978; cited by Ali, 1986). Also, there is a high illiteracy rate in the Arab Gulf States’. In 1978 the rate of illiteracy in this group raged from 31 per cent in the United Arab Emirates to 57 per cent of the population of Saudi Arabia (Al-Atiah, 1983; cited by Ali, 1986). These high illiteracy rates are due to problems in the education system which does not have the capacity to provide adequate educational and technical skills (Ali, 1986). This is due to the

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Proposal for a Business Research Project Exploring the Impact of Coursework

Proposal for a Business Research Project Exploring the Impact of Passion of Employees in the Banking Sector to their performance - Coursework Example In undertaking the research, a group of banks from the same financial institution will be randomly selected as our sample for the research. A survey will be designed with the financial institutions senior management, other staffs and customers as the sample space. We will choose a sample size of 300 randomly selected respondents for the research. Data will be collected using two methods. Hand delivered questionnaires for employees and oral interviews for customers. Since our data include description data, coding will be done to the data. Then the collected data will be entered, analyzed, and interpreted to reach a conclusion. A report will be written at the end of the research to show the outcome of the research in simpler terms. Objectives 1. To identify the efforts of employers in this sector to build passion in their employees and what motivates them to do so. 2. To determine whether the passion of an employee is influenced by his level, experience and gender and whether it is nat urally acquired or built by motivation and working conditions. 3. To determine how other employees feel working with their fellows who are passionate about what they do. 4. To find out how their clients feel when served by a passionate employee and to determine the criteria they use to judge whether an employee is passionate or not. Literature Review According to Cameron and Spreitzer (2011), passion has been studied for a long time in various contexts, like philosophy, theology, political science, psychology, and sociology. They also show that most of the writings in this field argue that passion is an intense emotion that interacts with cognition and motivates an individual’s behavior. Moreover, they argue that passion makes people to be heavily involved and... According to Cameron and Spreitzer, passion has been studied for a long time in various contexts, like philosophy, theology, political science, psychology, and sociology. They also show that most of the writings in this field argue that passion is an intense emotion that interacts with cognition and motivates an individual’s behavior. Moreover, they argue that passion makes people to be heavily involved and invested in the activities they undertake. Linley and Harrington identify passion as the desires, thoughts, plans and behavior which persist over time. They also say that passion can lead to increased performance regardless of costs, external obstacles or moral objections. These scholars also reveal that the difference between passion and enjoyment is that passion is deeper and lasts for a longer time. Moreover, they indicate that in a team passion can play quite important role in motivating others and can help people to adhere to their goals despite the challenges of achie ving them. Passion for work helps employees to sustain the energy necessary for organizational excellence and enables managers to motivate and inspire other employees. This shows that passion in employees can actually make an organization to excel. Linley and Harrington show that people cannot raise passion, so the best thing to do is to identify the thing you are passionate about and pursue it in your life.

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Escalating Costs of Social Health Insurance Essay Example for Free

Escalating Costs of Social Health Insurance Essay Unlike any other country in the world, the United States continually experience rising cost of healthcare provision. Wolfe (1999) reports that healthcare costs has been increasing at a high rate for decades, it is estimated that every 40 months, the share of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) spent on healthcare goes up by 1 percent. Health expenditure which stood at 12. 3 percent of GDP in 1990 increased to 16. 0 percent of GDP in 2006 and is projected to reach 20 percent in the next 7 years. Between 2005 and 2006 alone, healthcare spending increased by 6. 7 percent, exceeding nominal GDP growth by 0. 6 percent, to a whooping $2. 1 trillion, representing an estimated $7,000 spending per person (Kuttner 2008; Catlin et al 2008). Various factors including inflation, aging population and advances in medical technology has been indicted as been responsible for the global increase in health expenditures, however, the American situation appears to be peculiar. Kuttner (2008) contends that the proliferation of new technologies, poor diet, lack of exercise, the tendency for supply (physicians, hospitals, tests, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and novel treatments) to generate demand and the culture of the American litigation, resulting in excessive malpractice litigations and the practice of defensive medicine, all adds together to ensure that the country experiences the largest and fastest growth in health expenditures, while at the same time, defeating efforts at cost containments. Like every other developed country, health insurance systems, especially social health insurance systems constitute the primarily methods of health financing (Carrin and James, 2004). This arrangement ensures that most of the cost of healthcare are paid by third parties, either through public establishments, as in social (public) health insurance systems, or by private bodies, as in private health insurance system, or in some cases, a mixture of both (Wolfe, 1999). The mixture of private and social health insurance is present in almost every country, with variations in their coverage. While in most European countries, social health insurance is deeply ingrained in societal fabric and provides the largest source of funding and insurance coverage (Saltman, 2004), the vast majority of Americans receive their health insurance coverage through employer based private insurance, with the rest of the country covered by any of the several public health insurance programs (Glover et al 2003). It is estimated that employer private health insurance covers approximately 63 percent of the population, with 51 percent of these amount covered by their own employers, while the remaining 41 percent are covered as a workers dependent; 14 percent are covered by public programs, 5 percent covered by individual insurance policies while an estimated 17 percent of the population are uncovered by any insurance (Devi, 2005). Medicare is largely regarded as the primary national (social) health insurance program in the United States, providing coverage for an estimated 44 million Americans over the age of 65. It is also estimated that Medicare provides health insurance coverage for about 7 million Americans under the age of 65 who have a disability or chronic condition (Fact Sheet, 2007). Social health insurance is a vital part of any countrys health care and health financing program, in some part of Europe, there is a general contention that social health insurance is not just an insurance arrangement, but a way of life, they are seen as a part of a social incomes policy that seek to redistribute wealth and health risk evenly amongst the population, however, the rising costs of these systems, not just in the United States but across the modern world, threatens the system. Before an analysis of the costs and factors driving costs of social health insurance systems, especially in America and in other European countries, it is important to first briefly describe the underlying principles of the social health insurance system and its difference from the private health insurance programs. This will be followed by a description of the United States Medicare program and some social health insurance programs in selected European countries and then a look at the costs of these programs. Steps taken towards cutting costs of the social insurance programs and the differences in cost cutting approaches between the United States and European Union countries will be examined. Lastly, future approaches that could help ameliorate the financial challenges facing the United States public insurance programs shall be recommended. Social Health Insurance Social health insurance, in its basic principle, in any society achieves a set of societal objectives through its peculiar form of financial cross subsidies, which covers redistribution from the healthy to the ill, from the well off to the less well off, from the young to the old and from the individual to the family. This redistributive focus of any social health insurance program distinguishes it from what is nominally regarded as insurance, thus, in several societies, it entrenches solidarity, income redistribution and is thus seen as a key part of a broader structure of social security and income support that sits at the heart of civil society (Saltman, 2004:5) Saltman and Dubois (2004) contend that although Germany is considered the source of the modern day form of social health insurance, when it codified existing voluntary structures into compulsory state supervised legislation in 1883, the history of social health insurance (SHI) dates back longer to the medieval guilds in the late Middle Ages. However, they agreed that the structure and organization of SHI over time has considerably evolved; the number of people covered has increased from a small number of workers in particular trades to a larger portion of the population, the central concept SHI has evolved from wage replacement a death benefit into payment for and or provision of outpatient physician services, inpatient hospital care and drugs; thirdly, the administrative structure of SHI has also evolved from cooperative workers association to state mandated legislative character, beginning with Germany in 1883 and the most recent, 1996 in Switzerland. Structurally, social health insurance everywhere possesses three common characteristics. Social health insurance programs are administered privately in both funding and in the provision of health services; as a result of their private administration, social health programs are self regulating, and lastly, as a consequence of their independence and self regulation, social health insurance programs are relatively stable, both in organizational and financial terms (Saltman, 2004). As a fall out of these structural characteristics, social health insurance posses several core components that differentiate them from private health insurance programs. Under SHI, the raising of funds is tied to income of beneficiaries, usually in the form of a transparent and fixed percentage of wages. As a result, contributions are risk independent and thus encourage maximal risk pooling. Also, collection and administration of revenues for the program are handled by not-for-profit and sometimes, state run funds and these funds are usually managed by board members that are usually representative and elected. The United States Medicare program posses most or all of the characteristics of a social health insurance program. For over 40 years, the program has successfully provided healthcare access for the elderly and millions of people with disability. It is regarded as the nations single largest health insurance program and it covers a wide range of the society for a broad range of health services. For example, Potetz (2008) report that one out of ever five dollars spent on healthcare in 2006 came through the Medicare program. The program is also reported to fund, at least, one third of all hospital stays, nationally. In most European countries too, national, public (social) health insurance programs reportedly covers a large proportion of the population, in most cases, reaching up to 100 percent coverage. Saltman and others (2004) reports that in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Switzerland and from 1995, Israel, all have health insurance systems where (public) social health programs plays predominant roles in organization and funding of health care services, where between 60 to 100 percent of the population are mandatorily covered. They further argue that even countries like Finland, Sweden and the United Kingdom, Greece and Portugal that have a tax funded National Health Service schemes, segments of SHI based healthcare funding also exists. Explaining the difference between social health insurance programs and private health insurance, Thomson and Mossialos (2004) contend that private health insurance play very insignificant role in the health systems of several European countries, either in terms of funding or access to healthcare. Unlike in the United States where more than 60 percent of the population are covered by private employer based insurance, private health insurance programs covers a relatively small proportion of the population and accounts for less than 5 percent of the total health spending, with the exception of France, Germany and the Netherlands. The most common difference between social and private health insurance includes eligibility, risk pooling and benefits. For social health insurance programs, contributions are mostly based on a fixed or varying proportion of wages, without regard for risks, thus a wider proportion of the people are eligible and benefits i. e. health services offered are broader with less out of pocket costs (Thomson and Mossialos, 2004; Saltman 2004). For private health insurance, the reverse is the case in most situations. Especially in for-profit private health insurance systems, contributions are adjusted according to risks and for the most part high risks individuals are rejected or expected to pay higher premiums. Consequently, eligibility requirements are strict; out of pocket expenses might be higher, while services provided vary significantly across programs, depending on an array of factors. Depending on the generally functions and services offered by private health insurance, the relation to social health insurance can be substitutive, complementary or supplementary. Substitutive private health insurance programs provides insurance covers that is otherwise available from the public programs purchased by individuals or groups who are excluded from the SHI. The larger proportion of the US society is excluded from the public insurance programs, which are usually available to the elderly, the disabled or the very poor, the rest of the population must rely on private employer based insurance. However, in European countries with effective SHI, only certain individuals with income above a certain upper threshold are excluded from the public insurance program e. g. in Netherlands and Germany, while the rest of the population are eligible. Complementary private health insurance programs provide cover for services not fully covered by the SHI programs or totally excluded, the Medicare + Choice plans is an example of such covers. Lastly, supplementary private health insurance provides cover for faster access and also increased consumer choices for individuals who can afford it (Thomson and Mossialos, 2004). Eligibility and Coverage  The United States Medicare program is essentially for the elderly, thus, individuals are eligible for Medicare coverage if they are citizens of the United States or have been a permanent legal resident for five continues years and over 65 years old. Individuals younger than 65 years of age can also be eligible for Medicare coverage if they are disabled and have been on the Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) or the Railroad Retirement Board benefits for a period of two years. Further, individuals with end state renal disease (ESRD) or Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) known as Lou Gehrig’s disease also qualifies for Medicare coverage. However, many people with disability do not qualify for SSDI benefits and by extension, Medicare. To qualify for these benefits, disabled individuals must have a family member under age 65 who have a work history which included Federal Income Contribution Act tax (FICA), an individual may also qualifies for SSDI on the FICA contributions of a parent as a Childhood Disability Beneficiary (CDB) or as a disabled spouse of a deceased spouse. Whichever qualification route applicable, an individual qualifies for Medicare two years after he/she starts receiving the SSDI benefits, except for the Lou Gehrig’s disease where Medicare benefits starts in the first month SSDI payments are received or in the case of the ESRD where Medicare benefits starts within three months of the first dialysis (Fact Sheet, 2007). As of 2007, it is estimated that Medicare provides cover and health services to about 43 million Americans. This figure is expected to double to 77 million by 2031 when the baby boomers of the post World War II period start to retire. However, as mentioned previously, SHI in European countries offer universal coverage that is mandatory in some countries. Coverage for these countries varies from 63 percent in Netherlands to 100 percent coverage in France, Israel and Switzerland. In most of these countries, it is usually the highest income groups that are either allowed or required by law to leave the social health programs for private health insurance (Saltman, 2004:7). Benefits Benefits for Medicare members have continually been modified. The original program has two parts, Medicare Part A and part B. The Part A program known as Hospital Insurance, covers hospital stays with stays in skilled nursing facilities for limited periods if certain qualifying criteria are met. Such criteria include the length of hospital stay, which most be three days, at least, excluding the discharge day and stay in skilled nursing facility must be for conditions diagnosed during the hospitalization. Medicare Part A allows up to a maximum of 100day stay in skilled nursing facilities, with the first 20 days completely paid for by Medicare and the remaining 80days paid in part and requiring a co-payment from the beneficiary. The Medicare Part B covers services and products not covered by Part A, but on an outpatient basis. The benefits under this coverage includes physician and nursing services, laboratory diagnostic tests, influenza and pneumonia vaccinations x-rays and blood transfusions. Other services include renal dialysis, outpatient hospital procedures, Immunosuppressive drugs for organ transplant recipients, chemotherapy, limited ambulance transportation and other outpatient medical treatments carried out in a physicians office. This coverage, to some extent, also includes medical equipments like walkers, wheelchairs and mobility scooters for individuals with mobility problems, while prosthetic devices, such as breast prosthesis after mastectomy or eye glasses after cataract surgery are also covered. The recently added Part C and D of the Medicare benefits slightly deviate from the original Medicare concept. After the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 came into effect, Medicare beneficiaries were allowed the option of receiving their Medicare benefits through private health insurance plans if they do not want to go through the original Medicare plans. These became known as Medicare + Choice as beneficiaries could choose any private health insurance plans and have it paid for by Medicare. The Medicare + Choice or Part C arrangement later became known as the Medicare Advantage Plan after the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 came into effect. The Part D plan, on the other hand, covers mainly prescription drugs and anyone in the original Plan A or B is eligible for this plan. However, in other to receive the benefits of the Plan D, a beneficiary must enroll and be approved for a Stand-alone Prescription Drug Plan (PDP) or Medicare Advantage plan with prescription drug coverage (MA-PD). However, because Plan D is effectively operated by private health insurance companies, there are no standardized benefits, like the plan A and B; the private insurance companies could choose to cover some drugs or classes of drugs and not cover others, with the exception of drugs excluded from Medicare coverage. Beneficiaries are therefore restricted to the drugs coverage of the plans they choose (Merlis, 2008; Potetz, 2008). Contributions towards Social Health Insurance Medicare financing, like social health insurance everywhere, is financed through a complex mix of taxes, contributions, co-payments and the likes. The most important source of financing for the Medicare expenditures is through the payroll tax imposed by the Federal Insurance Contributions Act and the Self-Employment Contributions Act of 1954, while other sources of financing includes general revenue through income taxes, a tax on Social Security benefits, and payments from states required for the Medicare drug benefits which started in 2006. In addition to these, beneficiaries also contribute directly to Medicare financing through premiums, deductibles and co-insurance. It is reported that income cases, physician do charge beneficiaries an additional out-of -pocket balance billing to cover for services rendered (Potetz, 2008). The federal payroll taxes are paid by the working population or by the beneficiaries throughout their work history. The tax equals 2. 9 percent of gross wages, with half (1. 45 percent) deducted from the workers salary and the other half paid by the employer. Initially, there was a ceiling on the maximum amount any single person can contribute; however, beginning from 1994, the maximum limit was removed. Self employed people who do not have an employer to cover the other half of their taxes are mandated by law to pay the full 2. 9 percent of their estimated earnings. However, the contributions from the beneficiaries vary considerably depending on the plan and also range from premiums, deductibles, co-payments or in some cases, the balance billing mentioned previously.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Bound for Success? :: Journalism Journalistic Essays

Bound for Success? Boston is a city overrun with institutions of higher education. These universities and colleges dictate the way of life in their small areas of the city. But how do these multi-million-dollar universities help students in the area? Not the thousands of college students who flock to Boston for a pricey higher education, but the junior high and high school students who live in the shadows of these great universities? The colleges and universities of Boston are extremely diverse. They range from institutions such as Harvard and MIT, attracting attention from around the globe to the small area of Cambridge, Mass, to small colleges such as Simmons, a woman’s college, and Wentworth Institute of Technology, which tends to be primarily male. So do these universities, big and small, attempt to make higher education a likely possibility in the eyes of local city high school students whose families or financial status may be unfamiliar to the likes of major post secondary schools? Boston College, located in Newton six miles from downtown Boston is ranked 38th in U.S. News and World Report among national universities. Costing roughly $37,000 a year, the price alone is enough to dismay thousands of perspective students from attending the college. BC is located in a residential area surrounded by Boston public schools such as Brighton High School and West Roxbury High, to name a few. Do these students, some of whom come from low –income families, stand a chance of attending Boston College? In 1987 Boston College, in partnership with Boston public schools, started the College Bound program. Its mission is to help urban youth and their families aim to succeed in high school, higher education and beyond. Through mentoring, tutoring and exposure to a college environment, College Bound hopes to send Boston youth, who come from either Brighton or West Roxbury High, on to college. Eighty-five percent of college bound students will be first in their families to pursue a higher education. The program appears organized and on the website it states that all of its students (142 to date) graduate from high school and are admitted to colleges. However, the program requires a minimum G.P.A. of 3.0 in high school to participate. This rules out many students who may also dream of attending college, but haven’t acquired the skills to do better in school. A survey was conducted by Professor George Ladd, director of college bound, in order to assess Boston College’s contribution to the Boston public school system.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

How and why does Iago convince Othello of Desdmona’s infidelity?

Shakespeare is often referred to as the greatest playwright that ever lived. His comedies have made many laugh, his tragedies many have cried over and romances that have touched millions. Shakespeare's writing although hundreds of years old are always relevant to our lives because that is what they are about, life. Shakespeare deals with all aspects of human nature and flaws. He greatly exaggerates a particular flaw in each of his tragic heroes. This flaw brings about their downfall. In the course of one conversation Iago convinces a man who loves his wife completely that she is in fact having an affair with one of his most trusted subjects without using one shred of proof or any real basis. This is a man who can make the most innocent of people guilty and the most loved, hated. He uses many tactics to persuade Othello that Desdemona is cheating on him with Cassio, the reason, is revenge. Iago is a very cunning and manipulative man. He is also often irrational and erratic. He will go to any means to get what he wants and in this case he doesn't mind ruining three people in the process. At the beginning of the play we hear of Iago's rage at the fact that Cassio was made lieutenant instead of him. Iago feels that he was the better candidate and deserves the position. Iago isn't hard pushed to find a way of getting revenge. Othello often says that without Desdemona he would be in chaos, â€Å"But I do love thee; and when I love thee not, chaos is come again. † Iago uses this, because he wants to create chaos, which is one of the major themes of the play. Other major themes include relationships, jealousy, love and deceit. Luck provides him with the opportunity to stage an affair between Cassio and Desdemona, driving Othello to insanity and resulting in the death of Desdemona and Othello. Iago becomes very jealous of Othello because of his position in the Venetian Army. He is also sexually attracted to Desdemona but that is not a real reason for hating Othello, his mind concocts stories which he believes are true and thus making himself think acceptable to take revenge on Othello by sleeping with his wife. Iago believes that Othello has slept with his wife Emilia, â€Å"leapt into his seat†, he wants revenge for this too, â€Å"not out of absolute lust†. He wants to sleep with Desdemona for revenge not just for pleasure. He appears to be sexually frustrated as he also presumes that Cassio has also slept with Emilia, â€Å"I fear Cassio with me nightcap too†. Throughout the play he often refers to sex as lustful and nothing to do with love. This is emphasised in his disbelief that Othello and Desdemona's relationship is based on love. Through this we have to consider the reasons why he feels this way. Can he not love someone? He finds it easy enough to kill his own wife at the end of the play, yet is constantly reaffirming his â€Å"love† for Othello. We know he uses this as a tactic for Othello to gain faith in Iago, but could there be more? This plot is an obsession for Iago, his jealousy rules him. Could this mission be his only love? To understand how Iago convinces Othello that Desdemona is having an affair with Cassio we must look at the events beforehand which Iago directs to his own advantage. It starts when Cassio and Desdemona greet each other; Iago forms the plan that Cassio will be target. Cassio and Desdemona are friendly to each other and Iago can see how this could appear to be more than just friendship. Didst thou not see her paddle with the palm of his hand? † In Elizabethan times this was deemed as highly intimate and personal, this would have been an activity that only a couple would engage in. By claiming that Cassio was stroking Desdemona's hand, he is suggesting that they are a couple or intimate with each other. Iago sees the opportunity and uses his knowledge of Cassio to get him into a fight with Roderigo. Iago knows that this will outrage Othello and Cassio will want to redeem himself. Iago has planted the circumstances for Cassio to plead with Desdemona so that she will speak to Othello on Cassio's behalf. Iago knows that Desdemona will take up Cassio's plight for she is a good person. â€Å"I will beseech the virtuous Desdemona to undertake for me†. Desdemona doesn't realise that Iago is abusing her goodwill so that it will bring about her own downfall. Othello doesn't see it as strange that Desdemona is supporting Cassio for he knows what type of person she is. It is Iago that uses this as a basis for an affair between Cassio and Desdemona. Iago fools many of the main characters. He only gets away with this because they trust him and this protects him from any questioning. His cunning means that the events can occur, building the play. He uses this to his own benefit, talking Cassio into pleading with Desdemona and inducing Othello to believe that Desdemona is having an affair. Throughout the play Iago is described as an â€Å"honest† man, which to the audience seems ironic because really everything the man says they know to be a lie. Desdemona describes as, â€Å"o that's an honest fellow†, Othello thinks â€Å"This fellow's of exceeding honest,† and Cassio too sees him as honest, â€Å"†¦ honest Iago. † It surprises the audience that the characters are so blind to Iago's faults but then we must understand that he has never done anything that could make them doubt him. He is an idyllic picture, a man who is loyal and trustworthy, they could never imagine that he is capable of deceit. Iago's effectiveness at noticing innocent situations and making them look suspect is another way in which he gets Othello to believe in Desdemona's unfaithfulness. When Othello first enters the room at the start of Act III Scene III, Cassio hurriedly leaves the room after speaking with Desdemona. Cassio does this completely innocently, he leaves because he doesn't want to annoy Othello any more than he has already, he feels disgraced and is ashamed, and he cannot face Othello. Iago successfully twists this situation- â€Å"That he would steal away so guilty like- seeing you coming. † Iago explains Cassio's guilt as that he has been sleeping with Desdemona. Of course the reader knows that is not true, but to Othello, the way that he hurries away, once pointed out to him by Iago, does look very suspicious. This is even more enhanced in Othello's mind when immediately afterwards Desdemona starts defending Cassio and pesters Othello to re-instate him. This combined with Iago's perverting of the situation looks very abnormal to Othello. Iago convinces Othello that Desdemona is sleeping with Cassio by very through very calculated steps. In each instance he builds on Othello's insecurities and his trust in him. He is successful in commanding the lack of evidence to his own advantage. Othello trusts Iago as he sees him as a loyal subject. Iago starts by questioning Cassio and Othello's relationship. He does this by asking suggestive questions, â€Å"Did Michael Cassio, when you wooed my lady know of your love? † By doing this he is making Othello consider their past and what effect it could have on the present. When Othello questions him further he refuses to answer a question directly. â€Å"Honest my lord? † By doing this it is as if he is trying to protect Othello, by keeping something from him. This will make Othello want to know the truth even more as it is human nature to be curious; after all we all want to know details especially if you know that really you shouldn't hear it. For Othello to believe in what Iago is about to tell him Othello must trust him. Iago needs to know that his news will not be instantly dismissed, he does this by the affirmation of his love. † My lord you know I love you†. This is his basis, if you genuinely trust someone you believe in what they tell you. Othello and Iago had fought together in wars and it is most likely that they had often held each other's lives in their hands. So Othello would never believe that Iago would turn against him so suddenly, especially as for the large majority of the play, Iago looks to be nothing more than a completely loyal servant to Othello. He refuses to tell Othello what he's thinking. â€Å"Utter my thoughts? Why say they are vile and false? † He doesn't want to say anything bad or untrue, after all he is Othello's loyal servant and would not want to hurt him. He also doesn't want to leave himself out for blame by playing this way he can say that Othello pressurised the information out of him even when he wasn't sure it was true. Iago is good at planting ideas. † O beware my lord of jealousy†. Iago suggests what Othello should be thinking and feeling. Even if Othello wasn't previously jealous because maybe he didn't believe fully, now Iago has told him exactly what he should be feeling. By warning Othello has in fact put it in his utmost mind. Iago plays on the fact that Othello is not of Venetian society. He explains that there are differences in social attitudes. † In Venice they do not let God see the pranks they have not shown their husbands†. Othello cannot question this as he is from a different background and already feels compromised. Although when in Venice, he appears to be a strong-minded character, proves to have low self-esteem, this low opinion of himself may stem from being racially self-conscious. But some may argue that race would not have been an issue, it is more to do with the fact that he comes from a different society, an outsider who knows little of how their expectations. Although no mention is ever made of it, Othello views himself as different, which he is, from the rest of Venetian society. In was shock to everyone and probably even Othello that one of the most eligible women in Venice has fallen in love with him. So when Iago starts telling Othello of a relationship between Cassio and his wife, the rumours about Desdemona and the fact that she had refused men of higher status than Othello, â€Å"Not to affect many proposed matches of her own clime, complexion and degree†¦ † he believes it may be true. Also he reminds Othello of what her father said when he first found out about Desdemona planning to marry Othello without his consent- â€Å"Look to her Moor, if thou hast eyes to see: She has deceived her father and may thee†. To which Othello replies â€Å"My life upon her faith†. Much of Othello deals with pride and reputation, for Othello now to hear about Desdemona's unfaithfulness, after he replied so convincingly that he trusts her completely, would certainly start to worry him. After all, if what Iago had been telling Othello was true, then Othello had been made to look a complete fool by Desdemona in a very short period of time. Iago often uses very crude language and often refers to animal imagery. He belittles Othello and Desdemona's relationship, regarding it in its most instinctive form, a sexual relationship, â€Å"†¦ you'll have your daughter covered with a Barbary horse;† Othello however approaches it as serious and loving relationship, â€Å"†¦ Nor to comply with heat the young affects in me defunct and proper satisfaction; But to be free and bounteous to her mind. † That is why the audience is particularly amazed that Othello resorts to animalistic images too. Othello refers to Desdemona as â€Å"haggard†, a hawk that cannot be tamed. He also refers to himself as a â€Å"toad†; this is a far cry from the man who stood in front of the Duke and other important men of Venice declaring his love. Shakespeare uses this technique to show us that Othello has lost his confidence and is no longer self-assured. As he becomes more and more angry his control through his speech begins to slip, no longer does he speak in long flowing sentences but now in exclamations, which hints at his loss of capability to loose his temper. He is also speaking in a similar way to Iago, This may symbolise that he has come to think in the same manner. These images show us the depth of Othello's jealousy, the woman he loved he now disparage. When Othello begins to fall into the trap that Iago has set out, there is only one thing that would convince him completely. The principal method that Iago uses to convince Othello of Desdemona's infidelity is by using one of Othello's most treasured possessions and telling Othello that his wife, Desdemona has given it away to her lover, Cassio. The handkerchief was the first gift he gave to Desdemona, so it possesses enormous sentimental value to Othello. Finding out that Desdemona has given it away shows her as inimical. It must have hurt and angered him, after all the woman he loves and is married to has given away without a care for him, would almost certainly anger him, for in Othello's mind she has thought the handkerchief to be a meaningless piece of cloth. Iago tells Othello that he saw Cassio wiping his mouth with it, much like a rag. † I know not that; but such a handkerchief- I am sure it was your wife's- did I today. See Cassio wipe his beard with†. This enough proof for Othello to be convinced that Iago is telling the truth and for him to kill both Desdemona and Cassio. Within these three says let me hear thee say that Cassio's not alive. † And, â€Å"I will withdraw to furnish me with some swift means of death for the fair devil. † The fair devil refers to Desdemona. This oxymoron suggests that Othello still sees her as divine and yet he has lost his faith in her. Of course, the main way Iago fools Othello is by pure luck. That luck being that a lot of the things that Cassio and Desdemona say and do fall right into the trap and further convince Othello of a relationship between the two of them. When he first sees them together and Cassio scurries away, Iago jumps on the opportunity. Another example of this is found further on in the play when by controlling the circumstances Iago gets Cassio to talk disparagingly about Bianca, while Othello thinks the conversation is about Desdemona. The luck of this situation is gargantuan; one mention of the name Bianca and Othello would realise that Cassio was really speaking about her, fortuitously for Iago, Cassio does not mention Bianca's name once in the entire conversation. Shakespeare often presents the true feelings of the characters through soliloquies. Through Iago's soliloquy we see that Iago is an opportunist and amoral. The Moor already changes with my poison†¦ † This line shows that Iago's plan is having the desired effect. Other characters in Shakespeare's plays have shown conscience to the fact that they are doing wrong, and have felt some remorse, we can see this in Macbeth's soliloquy, â€Å"First, as I am his kinsman and his subject, strong both against the deed; then, as his host, who should against his murderer shut the door, not bear the knife myself. † But Iago shows no wavering, he is convinced that this is the right thing to do, â€Å"Burn like the mines of sulphur,† he wants Othello to fall from grace as revenge for instating Cassio over him. It is most disconcerting to think that Iago almost takes pleasure from Othello's torment, â€Å"Nor all the drowsy syrup of the world, shall medicine thee to that sweet sleep which thou ow'dst yesterday. † Othello is the typical â€Å"tragic hero† that Shakespeare incorporated in many of his works, a man who sets out to do his very best, but through one flaw he is bought down. This has an enormous effect on the audience. The audience know that he is a good man, but circumstances are working against him, leaving the audience frustrated at his own idiocy for not realising and making the amendments. Often as the audience we feel like screaming at him for being so blind to the facts, we are drained of our emotions. Shakespeare intended this; he used the ancient Greek method of Catharsis. Shakespeare had to make the main character likeable enough for the audience to warm to him and suffer his pain, but still make sure that in the end his tragic flaw shone through. Othello's main flaw is his jealousy. Othello's other flaws are pride and gullibility. Iago however can not be blamed for everything; he did not murder Desdemona nor kill Othello. The characters must have a motive of their own and therefore is there not a basis for Othello to be pushed into murdering his wife? Many would say that by removing Iago the couple would live happily ever after, but mustn't there be a reason for why Othello was pushed so readily into murder. Othello acts like a confident man when in Venice, he has the support of his wife and men like Cassio. Remove the safety of that support and you would find a man alone in a foreign country which has different values and expectations, maybe in reality Othello knew that he could not belong in Venetian society and not with Desdemona. Our view of Othello progresses as the play develops. The first mention of Othello is by Iago; he presents him to the audience as someone with poor judgement as he has promoted the wrong person and through repellent sexual images, as someone grotesque. Yet others, like the Duke see Othello as â€Å"†¦ valiant†¦ † From the beginning Othello is authoritative and confident, but without the knowledge that Desdemona is faithful to him, he collapses. Othello's lack of judgement is shown when he lets suspicion of Desdemona having an affair with Cassio take over his mind, stopping all rational thought. He asks the opinion of Emilia (Desdemona's handmaid and Iago's wife) â€Å"You have seen nothing then? † Even though she replied â€Å"Nor ever heard, nor ever did suspect† he does not believe her because his poisoned mind can't accept it. This is an issue that reigned in the Elizabethan times, people of his social status could not loose their power, it disrupted the hierarchy and made those below them feel uneasy. Society was very structured and those at the top would have a ripple effect on everyone below. We also notice in Shakespeare's plays that the tragic hero is always a man of position, Kings, noble men or army officials. This is so that they have a position to fall from, there would be no point in having an ordinary man in a story like this, the tragic hero is meant to be almost perfect, but not quite. This can be linked to the tragic hero King Lear; he is far too trusting and divides his country between his two treacherous daughters, which inevitably leads to his death. Through King Lear Shakespeare looks at madness and through the character of Othello he shows us how the people we surround ourselves with can create this. In the play, â€Å"King Lear†, King Lear has to deal with betrayal by his daughters in a similar way to which Othello is betrayed by his trusted friend, Iago and he believes his wife too. Like Othello Lear looks for justice instead of the revenge that Iago seeks. â€Å"It shall be done; I will arraign them straight. Come, sit thou here most learned justicer. â€Å"(King Lear, Act 3 scene 6) it indicates that a desire of order and justice is starting to replace the chaos and thoughts of savage revenge in Lear's mind; it marks the start of his journey away from insanity. This insanity is similar to what Iago creates in Othello, he creates jealousy and through that chaos. All of the main themes are present in Act III Scene III. The fight of good against evil is represented in Othello's struggle with Iago. The theme of chaos verses order is shown through Othello's gradual recede in anguish. Othello's overpowering jealousy blinding him from the truth and Iago's revenge which bring about the chaos and evil. Despite wanting to kill his wife Othello's love for her still remains. In his soliloquy before killing Desdemona he states his love for her, however Othello thinks murder is the only punishment worthy of betrayal â€Å"yet she must die, else she'll betray more men†. Othello's jealousy is now at peak level, he still can't show rational thought and is blind about the true horror he is about to do. Even when he speaks to her and she denies ever giving Cassio the handkerchief he doesn't believe her, â€Å"Yes, presently; therefore confess thee freely of thy sin; for to deny each article with oath cannot remove nor choke the strong conception that I do groan withal. Thou art to die. † It is ironic that Othello believes every lie that Iago fed him and yet cannot believe a single truth that the woman he loves tells him. â€Å"I never did offend you in my life; never lov'd Cassio but with such general warranty of heaven as I might love; I never gave him token. † After killing his bride he is brought out of his trance and realises the mistakes he has made. Iago's scheme is brought out into the open. Emilia brings out the scheme when the truth is told about the true goings on. At this point in the play Othello's heroic qualities are put on show for the audience once more. â€Å"Speak of me as I am; nothing extenuate, nor set down aught in malice: then, must you speak of one that lov'd not wisely but too well; of one not easily jealous, but, being wrought, perplex'd in the extreme. † Having realised the horror of the situation he takes full blame for his actions and commits suicide and lies next to his beloved bride to die. Iago is a man who is out for his own gain, and there are many people in our society who are like him. He is a character who knows how to direct circumstances to his own purpose, unfortunately the other character do not see this and are spun into his web of lies. By luck and tactics like planting ideas and evidence he is able to persuade Othello into thinking that Desdemona is having an affair and get his revenge. Through this catharsis we realise that in Iago Shakespeare has created that ultimate embodiment of evil and malice.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Brother Keepers

The purpose of this program is to feed the homeless on Skid Row, many of which are mentally ill or substance abusers. The two evenings are Mondays and Wednesdays at St. Bede Church located at 215 Foothill Bled, in La Canada, 91011. A second location which meets on Tuesday is St. James Church at 4625 Duunsmore Ave. , La Crescenta, 91214 A third location which meets on Thursday evenings is Holy Redeemer Church at 2411 Montrose Ave, Montrose 91020. I arrived at 4 pm to assist the staff with preparing meals, homeless shelter, and distribute the food.I also stayed with the staff at all times while in Skid Row. Feeding the homeless is an exciting experience. At all locations, the experiences are not inherently different as similar participants were attended and their needs met. The beauty of the program is that it addressed the three basic needs of man: food, clothing and shelter. These needs are universal and when people are involved in meetings, recipients of such gesture are eternally g rateful. This is what happened during the program.While serving the people with food at the church, these people found a comfortable place to rest and to be fed. I found the experience to be an eye-opener to the challenges that people face in life; it opened my eyes to understand what it really means to homeless and steps to help people in such circumstance. The population served was basically homeless who lived on Skid Row without any comfortable shelter. Some of them used the opportunity to narrate how they resorted to the Row for shelter, how they lost their jobs, the meaning of life and later eventually became homeless.Others talk about the inhuman treatment they had in their hostile homes which drove them to abuse substance, and the series of events which culminated in their ejection from their homes. Because of their experiences have become mentally ill sequel to inability to adjust to the stressful life events they had passed through, they have begun to abuse drugs and substa nces such as alcohol, cigarette, cannabis, marijuana, amphetamines and other stimulants. They said the latter keeps them off their problems and gives them temporary relief from the horrible conditions where they reside.They were receptive of the gesture and received it with gladness, as they expressed their appreciation without hesitation. These people need our people; they are wonderful. There are ethical, psychological, spiritual, cultural, legal and economic principles related to the homeless population living in Los Angeles. It is noteworthy to state that giving money to the homeless will not help solve their inherent problem. It is better to adopt a holistic approach where the underlying psychological or psychiatric problem is duly addressed. This is where the spiritual houses like churches have become useful, as in this program.The feeding took place in churches. These houses still provide a place of comfort for the less disadvantaged and homeless in the society. A combination of spiritual help with government intervention can help alleviate the challenges of homelessness. Such government interventions will include provision of housing facilities at affordable prices. A social welfare provision is also encouraged but it must be meant for citizens who have no or limited means to help them. Substance abuse is a common psychiatric problem amongst the homeless. There is also increased risk of depression and suicides.Besides, sexual promiscuity is on the high side there as social disinhibition is out of place. Besides, community acquired pneumonia and tuberculosis are also prevalent among people living on the streets because they live in overcrowded places. Diarrheal diseases are also common. The staffs at Brothers Helpers demonstrate professionalism in dealing with the homeless: they exude confidence while they deal nicely with these needy people. They show understanding of the conditions of this set of people, and are really compassionate. I am glad I had s uch an experience: I realize that to make others happy is the key to fulfillment in life

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Business Process Outsourcing

Business Process Outsourcing Introduction Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) involves a firm contracting some of its operations and processes to another firm. According to Duening and Rick (2), Business process outsourcing is a movement of business process from inside the organization to an external service provider. Outsourcing enables the company to concentrate on the main objective.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Business Process Outsourcing specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Rafiq (4) describes business processing as a white collar services required to service employees to customer. The services given by BPO firms may include: auditing, tax processing, Payroll, e.t.c. India has for a long time dominated the BPO market, mainly because of availability of labor, resulting from the high population in the country. There has been tremendous growth in BPO industry in china. The growth can be attributed to Chinese richness in experts, knowledge and skills, as well as increased proficiency in English language in the recent years, compared to the past. China’s main barrier to becoming the top BPO provider is the English language (Shalin 1). A lot of Chinese people today are learning English and the government plans to use billions of dollars in English Education so that China can become a global leader in BPO. Outsourcing has become popular in developed nations and across the world, with the firms being drawn to the BPO because of factors like availability of expertise, availability of improved services and cost reduction (Reid 1) Who are the major competitors? India hosts most of the leading BPO companies and enjoys vast market from United States, and around the world. It has firms like Genpact, Infosys BPO, IBM India and HCL which are globally competitive IBM offers BPO services, among many other services and it’s based in the United States of America. It manufactures and sells computer software and hardware. IBM offers the following outsourcing services;Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Customer Relationship Management Finance and Administration Human resource Procurement and supply chain management Technical Help desk services Industry Bank office CRM services involve provision of an improved customer experience and also intensive analysis of customer’s data, so that it becomes possible to come up with actionable and viable customer initiative. Customer Relationship Management also involves reduction of bad debts, through managing of debts. IBM also offers analytic business services which are supposed to give insight to customer management, and also to help the firm make better and valid decisions. IBM technical services helps a firm to utilize technologies in a way that they will reduce cost and ensure incidents that result to losses are reduced through proacti vely scanning IT environment. IBM has a branch in India, (IBM India) which was awarded the Golden Media HR Excellent awards for the year 2011, due to its effectiveness in Human resource and customer management. Accenture is another major competitor in the BPO market. It is an information technology outsourcing company, based on Ireland. Among the services that it offers are listed below. Procurement and human resource Finance and procurement: these includes Learning and Human resource IT outsourcing in conjunction According to Zacks investment Research (1), Accenture secured a number of contracts, for example, a 6-year outsourcing contract to provide application management services to Germany-based Henkel’s North American operations in the year 2010. This is an indication of how globally competitive the firm is, because of its links with Europe and proficiency in English language. Genpact also is another competitor to Chinese outsourcing companies. It offers services like,A dvertising We will write a custom report sample on Business Process Outsourcing specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Sales and marketing. Finance and Accounting. Supply chain. Collection. Customer services. Health care and learning. Content Management. Genpact went into a contract in January 2010 with US largest drugs store Walgreens, transferring at least 500 jobs to Genpact (Sachitanand 1). The main reason behind the outsourcing was to improve cost productivity and facilitate growth strategy aiming at maximizing returns. Genpact may be a big challenge to Chinese companies because, despite it having high skilled experts in various fields of services, it has the advantage of having staffs that are proficient in English, a language widely spoken in Europe, America and around the world. These are just but a few giants in the BPO market, that are out to compete with China in this business. Most of these firms get their employees from Indi a due to the availability of cheap and efficient labor which makes the outsourcing firms to prosper. Infosearch BPO is another company based on India that offers outsourcing services to their clients. According to Inforsearch BPO website, the company offers services ranging from: Outbound Call centre solutions Telemarketing Technical support, Chat and e-mail support Lead generation BPO processes Web related services In the BPO services, they offer Account and finance operation Various accounting services include: Accounts payable processing, interim Audits, General ledger Maintenance, Monthly and year end closing assistance, payroll processing, sales and tax returns preparation and Accounts reconciliation. Human resource services Human resource services include: Payroll Administration including handling of taxes issues, employee benefits, health, and Medical employees’ background verification Data processing and Management Data Processing and management services includes: D ata maintenance, data entry, Data processing, data conversion data mining and new database creationAdvertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Chat and Email support Chat and email support include, Customer service, Technical support, inquiry Handling order taking and Follow up services Strength and weakness of the main competitors Based on the above list of competitors, most companies that can give Asia a challenge in outsourcing business are in India. A company like IBM is based on United States; therefore it can enjoy better access to USA market than Asian companies due to the advanced market in the United States of America. India has been preferred to be a good source of labor force. India has low labor costs and high quality of skilled labor (Shalin 7). Outsourcing services in India has grown among major cities with some firms avoiding the major cities of India, to operate from minor towns in the service industry with low cost. Some firms are again looking for cheaper and efficient labor in the remote cities (Kobayashi 115) Shalin observes that the flourishing BPO industry in India is a result of a strong English spea king workforce that joins the market every year (vii). Outsourcing industry in China is faced with a Language challenge as many of the citizens cannot use the language well. To remove this barrier, the government of China is putting in place academic programmes and has also developed curriculum that will lead to more Chinese enrolling in those programmes to familiarize themselves with the English language. Accenture on the other hand offers extensive services, ranging from application, infrastructure, to business process outsourcing. It embarks on cost reduction to its clients, at the same time offering high quality services. It surpasses china by the fact that it is based on an English speaking country, and also being strategically located in Europe. According to Zacks investment research, â€Å"It has been expanding over the years, Accenture also has extensive relationship with world’s leading companies and government, and it operates in over 120 countries† (Zacks in vestment research 1). This has given this company an upper hand in securing a share in the BPO market (Zacks investment research 1). Infosearch BPO, another outsourcing company based in India, stresses the need of offering the best services to its customer. Inforsearch seeks to offer Financial and accounting services emphasizing on data security, risk management, governance and improved efficiency (Infosearch BPO services 1). Inforsearch BPO also offers excellent data processing and management at low rates, and also performs error- data management services that will help the organization save time, and hence money. They also respond to email of clients effectively without delay, removing the offload of many mails thereby reducing email overcrowding. Labor arbitration across Asia Labor arbitration is an economic concept where, with the removal of trade barriers, labor moves from regions with low paying jobs to regions where jobs are paying better. Some nations have very high populati on, and so they educate more labor than can be absorbed in the market. This leads to low wages and salaries. Labor arbitration allows these employees to migrate to other countries and seek employment. lupinacci (1) found out that cost of labor in Asia is 75% the cost of labor in United States. Therefore creating a need for companies to source cheap labor form Asia, just to save on cost. However, outsourcing only helps to reduce cost and is viable if you are importing labor at a lower cost. Companies in china cannot therefore source labor outside the country, if such labor is abundantly available right in the country. Initially, outsourcing clients were expected to come from expensive economies such as Japan, USA, Singapore, simply because labor costs in these countries were high, and therefore companies operating from there would wish to import labor at lower costs. Surprisingly, KPMG international (2) found out that 55% of surveyed companies in India and 46 percent in China say tha t they already outsource. 24 percent of respondents in India, and 30 percent in china plans to outsource in the next three years. Companies in India have greater tendency of outsourcing business functions as compared to other Asian companies and this distinguishes the operations of the companies between the two territories. According to the report, 64% of respondents in India say they currently outsource, or plan to outsource accounting, debt collection and tax processing. Only 50% in the rest of Asia say the same (KPMG 2). Language is an important and indispensable Criterion for companies when selecting and putting into place a service provider. To majority of the respondents, language and the country’s culture strongly dictates their outsourcing requirement. Although English remains the key language of the subsidiaries of multinational companies, it is not the case with local companies. Therefore, companies looking for outsourcing markets in Asia should employ people who ar e fluent in Asian languages. Most of the respondents viewed some tasks such as strategic planning, sales and marketing, risk management and research and development as very important and essential to the company, and so they should be done from inside. According to KPMG international (2), BPO business will boom in Asia, when more Asian companies agree to trust outsiders in the areas they regard as key player. For example, accounting, finance, etc. Finally, an explosion in the market is set to happen, when the companies that are already outsources succeed over their competitors, as a result of reduced cost brought by outsourcing. The competitors will be forced to follow suit, in order to stay in the business. Growth strategy to outsourcing company in China Outsourcing is one of the strategies that firms in developed world are using to lower cost of production, by outsourcing labor which is cheap, lowering their labor cost. Wage rates in China and India range from 10% to 25% as compar ed to those for quality workers in the US and elsewhere in the developed world (Brecher et al 1). What this means for Asia is that they stand a chance to expand their markets event wider because more and more firms in the developed countries will tend to source more labor from Asia. A good growth strategy would include: Adoption and campaigning for policies which allow labor migration across the world. In a free market economy, labor can easily move from countries where demand is low, to countries where demand is high. If all countries adopt this policy and ceases government intervention in labor markets, then firms in a given country can easily outsource. The government of China should ask its trade partners to adopt this policy, which is widely used by many developed countries in the world. The main drawbacks are that national labor union, as well as non-governmental organizations, which will always challenge the government if most of the countries workforce is outsourced and the unemployment levels, are high. Mostly, trade unions in developed countries demand for higher and higher pay. With the labor unions as watchdogs, it becomes tricky and difficult for the firm to replace the costly labor with a cheap one. Language is another factor that needs to be addressed. Language and culture of firms in outsourcing should be that which is acceptable and admirable to those who wish to get their labor. The main reason why Indian firms get a wider market in United States and Europe compared to other Asian countries is their ability to communicate in English. Chinese government has already embarked on programmers to make its citizens more conversant with English language. However, this does not rule out other Asian languages. The bottom line is for each BPO company to clearly make a target in the market, and ensure they are proficient in the language spoken in the spotted and targeted market. Companies like IBM India Genpact market share is largely attributed to their staffs’ proficiency in the English language. Asia, that is china and India should embrace outsourcing with both hands. KPGM international survey report shows that most firms in China embrace outsourcing, but just not with both hands. There are areas in the firms that the management feels so precious to outsource, and therefore they would rather produce their own workforce to do these jobs. These jobs include strategic planning, risk management, research development. If only everybody could embrace BPO, then china can enjoy the market first in the region and later in the rest of the world. However I strongly feel that in due time, the few firms that have embraced BPO in all areas will make tremendous success against their competitors. Government Policy The government of china should adopt policies that are likely to encourage firms to indulge in BPO, either as the supplier of services, or consumers. The policies should involve a tax holiday, for companies in BPO business. If an employee goes to work outside china and they are taxed on their income, the Chinese government should not tax the same so that they can avoid the problem of double taxation. Recently, the government of china has been encouraging multinational companies to set up outsourcing operations in the country or event set up joint venture with Chinese outsourcing companies. According to Ensinger, â€Å"the Chinese and the US government’s chamber of commerce and industry, Chinese branch, has worked hand in hand with the US government to Sponsor events in America, encouraging the US companies to seek for workforce overseas† (Ensinger pg. 1). The chamber has funded pro outsourcing campaigns, and has openly opposed those who are against it. Management This is yet another strategy individual firm should have good management skills that will enable to adopt strategies that will lead to success. Every firm should have a good IT infrastructure management that will ensure the firm adv ances in IT skills and should produce staffs that possess the same skills. Expertise in area of specialization is a self marketing concept in staff, and china should make their staff as experienced as possible. Employment retention The firms should adopt measures to ensure that hard working and focused employees are given incentives and good working conditions and the company should dedicate its resources towards their career development and experience so that they do not leave the firm. High employee turnover Raman classifies the reasons that lead to high employee’s turnover into â€Å"Drive attrition† reasons caused by the employer, or â€Å"drag attrition† reasons due to the employees. Drag attrition are caused by employer, who may fail to re hire employees after the contract period. The employing company’s policy may require retention of only the productive employees, with the rest being sent away (3). According to Raman, â€Å"Drag attrition is due to insecurity and vulnerability associated with taking on a career with a BPO company, while others may quite as a chance to rise up the corporate ladder† (Raman 3). Nature of work in many BPO companies is psychologically stressing and may lead to illness, fatigue, ulcers, depression and other chronic illnesses. In order to overcome workers turnover, BPO companies should give initiatives to ensure that employees remain with them and to make them feel that they gain more when they work with BPO than when they leave. Incentives may be financial; it can be a pension scheme which is enjoyable after working for years with them so whoever leaves earlier looses the benefit. High salaries High salaries that meet employee’s needs should be a must, alongside the assurance of a job security. The employees should feel that the BPO Company holds the future for them. Raman suggests various ways that employees can be made to stay in a BPO company (8). One of them is changing employeeà ¢â‚¬â„¢s attitude towards BPO. Employees should cease from seeing this job as a lifestyle or may be a job to cling on waiting for greener pastures ahead, to seeing it as a career. This can be done through changing organizational structure, which will give the employee a chance to climb up the corporate ladder, may be from a subordinate staff, to junior staff and later may be a manager. BPO companies should also present a socially presentable image to the employees and the public at large. Raman (8) says that â€Å"BPO firms should take those physically handicapped in the community, and thereby become socially responsible† as this will present a very good image in the eyes of the employees and they will feel a part of the organization and they will be more loyal and willing to serve the company to the best of their ability. According to Raman (9), effective communication should be used as a tool to give the employees a sense of belonging. Their views should be taken seriously and whoever has an incentive in the company should be taken seriously. Employees should be informed of what is happening and should be updated on issues of the company. Employees should also be given a choice of reward. Every employee should be in a position to choose among the varieties of rewards that the company offers Some people may prefer more pay, while others may prefer more time off. Personalizing rewards shows the company cares for each individual’s needs, as opposed to distributing generic rewards (Raman 10). Customer satisfaction This is also very important in outsourcing business; the firm should aim at achieving the needs of the company that it is supplying with technical experts. A good vendor client relationship also is a key thing in boosting BOP business (Mayen 4). Schwartz and Ye (1) attributes the key to business success to indulging yourself with a good outsourcing company that will ensure reduction in cost and lead to increased production capacity. The main reason why firms outsource is to attain competitive advantage, and achieve economies of scale (Kakabadse and Kakabadse 3). According to Harley (106), both the BPO Company and the client should consider certain aspects when developing a good negotiation strategy that amount to good result Both should understand negotiation position, and the position is largely determined by the objectives and goals of the BPO Company and the client. The clients aim at reducing cost and gaining competitive advantage. The scope of business The scope of business being outsourced should also be considered. This is driven by consumer’s business requirement and it will be determined by how the BPO Company deals with certain legal terms. Relative bargain Relative bargain positions of either party should also be put into consideration. The bargaining position is influenced by the client’s urgency to enter into a BPO contract and also the benefits that the transaction carried out offers to the vendor. The parties should establish the objective and goals of the contract because it largely influences the substance and form of the contract entered into. The parties should define the scope, according to the client’s requirements and the company’s resources and capabilities. The client must first define the scope of the agreement, and then the company redefines it. This process will help to come with good terms over the contract and it is a key to establishing a good and satisfying contractual relationship. Establish the value and urgency of the contract in terms of your client. The value may range from increased profits as a result of saving on costs to creating a good image in the eyes of the public, as a multinational company that take regards need of other nations. According to Harley (108), the value may also be psychological whereby if the contract has already been communicated to the employees and the public as a whole, failure to close the deal may be seen as a weak point in the eyes of the public and may demean the client. Each party must define roles it intends to play in the contract. This involves the legal process of drafting the agreement, where both parties ensure that all its concerns have been put into consideration. A good contract negotiation strategy by China BPO Company will lead to happy customers and long ties that ensure business progress in the coming years. Willcocks and Cullen (46) talk of a contract management that will ensure that firms operate at lower costs and in the spirit of profit maximization and relative competitive advantage. With these factors taken into consideration, Chinese BPO companies can at a significant amount overcome the challenge of employee turnouts and they would be at a path to become world leaders in this business. Why china has a great potential for BPO China’s BPO potential has been on the rise over the years, attracting more and more international companies. This strength c an be attributed to: Strong domestic market China is a country with very high population. This population offers a market for business growth. Many Chinese firms have also started outsourcing some services. The BPO industries therefore enjoy both the domestic market and the international market, leading to a tremendous growth. A survey conducted by Sanchez (20) shows that many companies in Asia and Canada do not outsource the areas they consider strategic, such as finance, but 90% comfortably outsource it. Companies should however embrace outsourcing in all sectors, to increase the domestic market Improving education infrastructure According to Gallagher et al (5), on a higher education report in china by (OECD), enrollment in higher education in China has risen from 5 million in 1990, to 23 million in 2009. This tremendous investment in education means improved and quality workforce for china. The workforce has hence led to high growth in BPO industries. Skilled labor at low prices China enjoys a vast population of skilled labor. Going with the law of demand and supply, higher supply will reduce the cost of labor, making manufactures enjoy low labor at very low costs. It has the largest population with 1.3 to 1.4 billion people (Eltscjomger, 34) Brecher et al (1) argues that wage rates in China and India rang form 10% to 25% of those for comparable quality workers in US and elsewhere in the developed world. Due to this, firms in developed countries are moving to china to source for cheap labor boosting the BOP industry. Comprehensive IT infrastructure The government of China has embarked on a massive investment on the IT sector. China’s National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) declared that the government has spent RMB 367.6 billion on infrastructure. This infrastructure is therefore boosting businesses, especially IT outsourcing. KPGM international survey report shows that most firms in China embrace outsourcing but just not with both hands ( 4). There are areas in the firms that the management feels so precious to outsource, and therefore they would rather produce their own workforce to do these jobs. These jobs include strategic planning, risk management, research Government policies The Chinese government has embarked on policies that are at largely aimed at boosting BPO businesses. The policies are together with increased English education to make China population to be fluent with the English language and make China globally competitive. The policies also involve giving tax rebates, incentives and subsidies to BPO Companies (Rightsite Team 1) Exchange Nexus is a Chinese based company that provides insight to other companies on how to outsource. According to Exchange Nexus (1), the company works with top Chinese outsourcing companies trying to outsource and provide them with training resources and this firm is just another reason why China is climbing heights in outsourcing. Conclusion The BOP industry is one of the largest growing industries in the world as a result of benefits that accrue to those who use it. The cost of initial investment can be tremendously high, because of capital assets as well as experts in various fields. In fact, the time that a firm may take to develop human resource that it requires and train them to high standard may be too much, considering how important time resource can be to an organization. BPO makes it possible for you to acquire these services without necessarily training the workforce yourself. BPO can also offer flexible labor because you can have a short term outsourcing contract for a service that you do not need for long. It can also be a good method of acquiring employees, because you can consume them in your program after the contract is over. Some firms even have policies to retain productive employees after the contract. In the long run, it means such a firm will employ a very productive workforce even in other parts of the world, a supermarket that want to develop sales software, probably do not have a programmer at hand. However, they can indulge an IT company to make this software for them without necessarily employing a programmer. The outsourcing business also helps in cost reduction because the firms can import cheap labor from developing countries to cut down on production cost. Outsourcing is therefore becoming a very common way of acquiring what firms do not have and the demand for the BPO services is increasing. India and China have got a large pool of skilled employees (Infosearch BPO Services Pvt Ltd 1). Over the years, India has dominated the market due to proficiency in English language of its citizens. Key leaders in the BOP business include IBM and Infosearch. These companies have branches in India. They are attracted by the large percentage of skilled workforce. Both India and China enjoys high population, resulting to surplus labor which should to be exported to other countries. China recently has enjoyed trem endous growth in the BOP sector (Weinberg pg 1). The government of China has been encouraging other countries to import labor from china, by diplomatic relations. We have already seen that the United States chamber of commerce and industry (China branch) is very active in campaign to encourage the US companies to outsource cheap labor from china. Initiatives are also underway to make most of the population to be fluent in English so that they can comfortably engage in business transaction Europe and America. The government has also made allies with other governments, in a view to expand international markets in the spirit of globalization of the labor force (Bpovia.com 1). Individual firms are also encouraged to undertake strategic measures that will ensure they live long in the business. They should build a good business name by providing high quality services to their customers and establishing good customer relations. Public image presented by a BPO company may either attract cus tomers or chase them away. If the current trend continues, China will be the leading BPO services provider in the world due to the abundance of professionals with high expertise at a very low price as well an increased IT revolution in Asia, and particularly in china. Bpovia.com. China Government favorable policies outsourcing China Business news, 2008. Web. bpovia.com/blog/bpo/china-government-favorable-policies-outsourcing.html Brecher, Jeremy., Costello, Tim and Smith, Brendan. From Campgains to movements:  Global labor strategies, 2006. Web.. http://laborstrategies.blogs.com/global_labor_strategies/2006/05/index.html. Duening, Thomas, and Click, Rick. Essentials of Business process outsourcing. Canada: John winkly and sons, 2005. Web. https://books.google.com/books?id=3OBKGyqZpJ8Cprintsec=frontcoverdq=bpo+outsourcinghl=encd=2#v=onepageq=bpo%20outsourcingf=false Eltscjomger, Cyrillm. Source code china: a new global hub in IT outsourcing. New Jersey: John winkly and sons, 2007 . Ensinger, Dustin. Report: chamber of commerce held seminar promote outsourcing:  America’s Economic report, 2010. Web. http://economyincrisis.org/content/report-chamber-commerce-held-seminars-promote-outsourcing Exchange Nexus. Connecting outsourcing opportunities in china, 2010. Web. exchangenexus.com/ Gallagher, Michael., Abrar, Hasan., Canning, Mary., Newby, Howard., Saner, Lichia – Yiu and Whitman, Ian. OECD Reviews of Tertiary Education, 2009. Web.https://www.google.com/#sclient=psyhl=ensite=source=hpq=march+2009++higher+education+report+in+china+%2Cby+(OECD)++btnK=Google+Searchoq=aq=aqi=aql=gs_sm=gs_upl=bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.fp=3de569e27bd1a92ebiw=1024bih=564 Harley, John. Business process outsourcing: Process, strategies, and contract, 2nd ed,  2007. New Jersey: John winkly and sons, 2007. Web. https://books.google.com/books?id=i9fAXY- ZfTACprintsec=frontcoverdq=bpo+outsourcinghl=encd=3#v=onepageq=bpo%20outsourcingf=false Infosearch BPO Services Pvt Ltd. B PO Company India: Outsourcing BPO Services   Call Center Solutions in Chennai, India, 2009. Web.. infosearchbpo.com/index.php Kakabadse, Andrew and Nada, Kakabadse. Outsourcing: Current and future trends. London: Wiley periodicals, 2005. Web.http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/tie.20048/abstract Kobayashi, Mark. Outsourcing to India: The offshore advantage, 2nd ed. Berlin: Springer verlag gerlin Heidelberb, 2005. Web.. https://books.google.com/books?id=zdxbEwgfQzQCpg=PA133dq=bpo+bookshl=enei=JThVTr-bHsXt-gagzenABgsa=Xoi=book_resultct=resultresnum=6ved=0CEoQ6AEwBQ#v=onepageq=bpo%20booksf=false KPMG International. International and Economic intelligence unit: Asian outsourcing,  2006. Web.aimri.net/master/presentations/Rajan-cht(2)..pdf lupinacci, Geno. Out sourcing in Asia, 2011. Web.. http://askvisory.com/research/hr-outsourcing-in-asia/ Mayen, Cunden. The impact of the it outsourcing relationship on the success of the  Venture: A research agenda Warwick Business Schoo l. UK: University of Warwick, 2005. Rafiq, Dossani. Issues in software and Business Process offshoring: Doing Business  In India, 2003. Web. http://asia.stanford.edu/events/fall03/slides/dossaniSlides.pdf Raman, Rajeev. Strategies to Retain Human Capital in Business Process Outsourcing  (BPO) Industry. India: Kohinoor Business School, 2006. Reid, Warren. Outsourcing: 20 steps to success, 2003. Web. www.wsrcg.com/Articles/OutSourcing.pdf Rightsite Team. 5 Reasons why China Will Dominate Business process outsourcing,  2010. Web. http://rightsite.asia/en/article/5-reasons-china-will-dominate-business-process-outsourcing Sachitanand, Rahul. Genpact ink 10-year outsourcing deal: Economic Times, 2005. Web. http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/ Sanchez, Carlos. The Benefit and risk of knowledge process Outsorcing: Ivey  Bussiness Journal, 2010. Web. iveybusinessjournal.com/topics/strategy/the-benefits-and-risks-of-knowledge-process-outsourcing Schwartz, Alan and Ye, George. Outs ourcing – Control is the key to success, 2002. Web. scribd.com/doc/58516259/Article Shalin, Verma. Soft Skills and BPO Sector. India: Dorkling Kinderslery publishers, 2009. Weinberg, Joshua. Offshoring IT and BPO services to China, 2010. Web. http://internationalbusiness.wikia.com/wiki/Rising_Star:_Offshoring_IT_and_BPO_Services_to_China Willcocks, Lesliem and Cullen, Sara. The Outsourcing Enterprise: From Cost  Management to Collaborative Innovation. Newyork: Palgrave macmillian, 2011. Zacks investment Research. Accenture wins outsourcing contract, 2010. Web. dailymarkets.com/stock/2010/06/16/accenture-wins-outsourcing-contract/ wauo7CmBgsa=Xoi=book_resultct=resultresnum=1ved=0CDUQ6AEwAA#v=onepageqf=false?

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

The Definition of Transcendentalist

The Definition of Transcendentalist A Transcendentalist was a follower of an American philosophical movement known as Transcendentalism which emphasized the importance of the individual and was a break from more formalized religions. Transcendentalism flourished from roughly the mid-1830s to the 1860s, and was often viewed as a move toward the spiritual, and thus a break from the increasing materialism of American society at the time. The leading figure of Transcendentalism was the writer and public speaker Ralph Waldo Emerson, who had been a Unitarian minister. The publication of Emerson’s classic essay â€Å"Nature† in September 1836 is often cited as a pivotal event, as the essay expressed some of the central ideas of Transcendentalism. Other figures associated with Transcendentalism include Henry David Thoreau, author of Walden, and Margaret Fuller, an early feminist writer and editor. Transcendentalism was and is difficult to categorize, as it could be viewed as a: Spiritual movementPhilosophical movementLiterary movement Emerson himself provided a fairly open definition in his 1842 essay â€Å"The Transcendentalist†: The Transcendentalist adopts the whole connection of spiritual doctrine. He believes in miracle, in the perpetual openness of the human mind to new influx of light and power; he believes in inspiration, and in ecstasy. He wishes that the spiritual principle should be suffered to demonstrate itself to the end, in all possible applications to the state of man, without the admission of anything unspiritual; that is, anything positive, dogmatic, personal. Thus, the spiritual measure of inspiration is the depth of the thought, and never, who said it? And so he resists all attempts to palm other rules and measures on the spirit than its own. Also Known As: New England Transcendentalists

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Australian Environmental History Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Australian Environmental History - Essay Example Forest history and heritage studies have received considerable attention in both the academic and public domains. Relationship between European or Western cultures influenced much in the environmental management and way of life. 'The visions of environment combined with the balance of power relationship within colonial society are reflected in the development of a public policy framework for resource user and environmental management from the mid 19th century' (Dover 1994, p. 5-78). The exploitative legislation and protective legislation are which involves the land grants for the settlers and the rights of distribution of mineral and water. With these two paradigms, political struggle is present which needs some clarifications. Exploitative legislation focuses more on the resource development and some specific developmental projects which take advantage of the current environmental status to serve the end users and meets their needs. Whilst, protective legislation is in contrast to the exploitative legislation which embodies the knowledge of conservation planning and protecting the general envi ronmental state for maintenance and storing up what is natural and upkeep the balance in nature. 1.) Exploitative Pioneering. The utilisation of Australian nature for the purpose of establishing financially viable fundamentals to its colony and endow with a return on venture from Britain and assemble the power of empire.

Friday, November 1, 2019

African American Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

African American - Assignment Example With freedom came a chance for willing African Americans to access education thereby advancing self-development and consequently the entire society. Unlike during slavery, women gender discrimination and harassment decreased significantly albeit not completely. For the first time, African Americans were allowed to work in different sectors although unlike earlier they were supposed to receive payments for their work. Moreover, General William Sherman allocated free land to the African Americans under the â€Å"special field order # 15†. Freedom of movement meant that African Americans could work in places of their liking and participate in other important activities that were not necessarily within their localities. However, transitioning from slavery to freedom was aided greatly by the Freedman’s Bureau, thirteenth amendment, and fourteenth amendment. Freedman Bureau assisted African Americans in activities such as negotiating contracts with white people, settling disputes between whites and blacks, and ensuring access to food, land, education, and medical services. The thirteenth amendment was passed in 1865 with ascent of President Abraham Lincoln into power. The fourteenth amendment allowed African Americans to receive American citizenship. However, there were also some negatives effects of ending slavery such as loss of land by some of the white people. For instance, in the Southern Carolina white men who had fled during the civil war could not get back their land from the African Americans on returning after the war. Additionally, ending slavery led to hostility towards white men from some of the African American. Nevertheless, the end of slavery ushered in a new era of freedom for African Americans and the entire American community as