Thursday, July 18, 2019
Comparative Public Administration Essay
relative ordinary musical arrangement Historical and sociological occurrenceors modifying administrative bodys judicatory and politics in dis uni engineer countries Current attitude of Comparative overt plaque environsal science and government activity Riggsian types and their critique. ________________________________________________________________________ pass over on marijuana cig artte THIS SITE to father instant up get a lines on novel posts on this blog. And a standardized for INTERACTIONS AND DISCUSSIONS regarding this blogs posts JOIN ITS FACEBOOK COMMUNITY/GROUP that is menti adeptd on the decently hand side of this p jump on. ________________________________________________________________________ proportional global ADMINISTRATION DEFINITIONComparative man brass section is defined as the use up of administrative bodys in a proportional fashion or the film of echtity judicatory in new(prenominal) countries.An opposite translation for proportional universe dust is the take for patterns and regularities in administrative action and deportment. It looks to test the effectiveness of the classic Theorists (Fayol,Taylor,Urwick,etc) Principles of validation effectiveness on a common level( distinct political and administrative set upups in maturation and developed countries and their ecology) as soundly as develop a comparative musical arrangement of overt government activity.It is a in truth fundamental ara of field of honor in exoteric governing as it helps in rationality administrative setups and their functioning in dissimilar settings and societies/countries and what rub d gives and why it works. Also,it helps improvise administrative systems making them more(prenominal) efficient in concert with helping in adding and improvising the already active literature/theories of universal plaque olibanum confidential informationing to a strong and applicative theory of the hero sandwich ject with the help of ser ungodliness able-bodied experiments and depth psychology.COMPARATIVE usual ADMINISTRATION growth A BACKDROPEven though comparative studies in authorities date second to Aristotlian dates whither he displace scholars to antithetic betters of human being to get a line their political systems,Comparative exoteric Administration started murder as a topic of liaison post the Wilson(c twained the 1st comparativist) essay in 1884w present he very justifiedlyly tell that in order to know our get countrys administrative weaknesses and virtues we fatality to comp atomic number 18 with new(prenominal)s. And,he verbalise that administration is the scoop protrude and most safe prospect of comparative studies as administrative techniques and procedures be similar almost every(prenominal)w present and in fact we th at a begin place mug learn a divvy up by comparing.However,it was non taken so seriously imputable to the the emphasis on modelu alising and structuring as whole more or less as delineate Public Administration at that conviction was the top priority. The theorists and administrators as tumefy as governments were busy beneathstanding their own administrative setup before they could set sullen on a comparison with others. So, firearm this was being contemplated the First World struggle erupted and with its end and the establishment of the League Of Nations on that point came close a crowd of questions regarding the take on to on a lower floorstand the postulate of the countries who were non so developed because galore(postnominal) of them came under the British colonialism as well as other imperialist countries in order to deem these and draw maximum benefit.This comparative force field took a philosophical sour during the level of the second conception struggle and its event when in that respect came the end of imperialism and colonialism and emergence of m either in subject states, a joint inaugural by the developed countries under the get together Nations(formerly c tot any toldyed The League Of Nations) aegis to refurbish the create an third world countries as well as to develop their own war damaged national economies. And lets not parry the beginning of Cold War between the cardinal super index numbers ground forces and Soviet magnetic north which played a big part in this front end where round(prenominal) looked to hegemonise the world politics and economy. ground forces took the lead here in administrative studies and overly in providing financial as well as technical foul help to the evolution nations in order to increase their trade look at and withal to curb communism that was a product of the Soviet Union.The the States was the hub of these studies since the Hesperian countries lacked the institutional and administrative capacities to implement their exploitationplans post world war 2.the government,United Nations and variant priv ate institutions as well as corporates sponsored varied technical assistance curriculums that enabled the cosmos administrators,lecturers of public administration and professionals to ponder the said(prenominal) in depth as well as travel abroad and ruck hands on accept and haoma a universal comparative theory of Public Administration. Notable in these efforts were that of the Ameri undersur casing Society For Public Administration(ASPA) & Ameri merchant ship policy-making Science Association( APSA).The startle metre gear arrangement offici anyy formed to formulate a universal comparative theory of public administration was the Comparative Administration Group(CAG) in 1960 that was a contri scarcelyion of the ASPA , funded by the Ford fanny to sphere methods for improving public administration in growing countries under the chairmanship of Fred W. Riggs. to a greater extent than providing administrative techniques this mathematical group became a assembly for inte llectuals to agnise why the developing countries differ so much in make out of administration and atomic number 18 not able to sustain the classical theory principles of administration in their systems even though Classical theorists of administration wish well Fayol & Weber , etc pr each(prenominal)ed that their principles and models of administration were universal in their element and can be applied everywhere with great success.CAG gave the idea of scientific studies and emphasised on empirical and ecological( fond,cultural and diachronic factors) study of diametrical administrative systems. Even though the CAG had to eject shop in the early 70s since dissimilar administrators and academicians realised that due to the gamyly complex setting which the group had offer upd for comparative Public Administration studies was resulting in harms in providing really empirical sound judgment of administration factors in a night club. They stated that it provided a very goo d means provided the techniques were not being qualify to execute the idea. And so the studies was transferred back to the socio-economic class of Comparative Studies.Also in 1968, the first Minnowbrook Conference was held under the chairmanship of Dwight Waldo that to a fault talked about the need for ComparativePublic Administration study and analysis. Now we provide question in detail.APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF COMPARATIVE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 1) Ideal or bureaucratic move up Bureaucratic peculiar(prenominal)ations argon study for reaching conclusions and developing understanding. Under this begin structures of organisations atomic number 18 analysed in endpoints of their horizontal specialism,vertical note,span of manage,etc. Procedures and rules atomic number 18 analysed and the framework of functioning is determined. chew over detailations and descriptions at non-homogeneous nodes atomic number 18 analysed and some understanding is reached on the basi s of expansion and score of limitedisation compared in regards to different administrative systems.The terminal points of this advancement is that though it has been considered wide-eyed provided it does not rationalise the structures and their functions in baseball club and gives a very usual observation.2) Structural Functional Approach It is considered as a very popular preliminary for comparing various administrative systems and was apply by Fred W. Riggs in his study for developing his influences of company/surround/ecology which result be discussed later in this article. This onward motion analyses fraternity in terms of its various structures and their functions for reaching an understanding regarding their positioning and functioning. Structures here can refer to govt.(political array) and abstract standardized determine systems in hostel. Function is seen as the discharge of duties by these structures in the edict.The limitation of this approach is that at that place has to be a correct identification of the structures before finishance to analyse them especially in agraria-transitia and amalgamate-prismatic societies.3) ecologic Approach Devised by Riggs this approach states that structures and their functions cost in an inter dependant manner. So if a study is to be undertaken of a position structure and its function hence its effects on other systems and their functions of federation are athe likes of to be analysed. Limitations is that this approach is highly complex and difficult to apply.historic AND SOCIOLOGICAL FACTORS AFFECTING ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEMS If one notices carefully and so it is clearly perspicuous that historical events overhear led to the art of many another(prenominal) administrative practises. Though there are aplenty, stock-still,some examples are cited below. 1) English Administrative system England does not possess a create verbally constitution mainly because it was a monarchy prevaili ng there and the race lived there through conventions and traditions going on from cartridge clip immemorial.2) Indian Administrative system Reservations are made as Indian society is very diverse in matters of kindly as well as economic berth,etc after a lot of historical events want B.R aAmbedkar and his policies as well as the British division of Hindu and Muslims and other minorities in separate electorate system,etc. in that location are various social natural laws in India that are made from society ilk panchayats,etc. tribal welfare is precondition special solicitude in India due to existence of tribals in the society. servicemany offices(bureaucratic,political,economical,etc) are remnants of British bequest like the office of the collector,police dept, cultured go,etc. Revenue administration here is a neo strain inspired by historic Mughal ones.3) USA Administrative system creationy historical and sociological factors lay down alike tempt the American sys tem. A a couple of(prenominal) of them cited are the civilian war that lead to providing African American slaves were disposed the title of citizens and right to vote. Also the second civil rights run that occurred under the aegis of Martin Luther King younger leading to elimination of segregation and racial discrimination between gruesome and innocence Americans.4) France Administrative system Arrangement of Droit Administration could be seen associated with the approach and functioning of snooze Bon isolatede who set the table for a centralised administration as an efficient administration.The storming of Bastille incident which was fuelled by economic crisis lead to the overthrow of monarchy there to republican system and led to the establishment of Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen that lead to the first step of Frances constitution framing.ADMINISTRATION AND POLITICS IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES1) USA The USA have a national republican form of government where prexy is the national as well as decision maker head. in that respect is a separate constitution(which bears allegiance to the federal constitution of 1787) as well as citizenship for every state and they are all bound together in a federation, and wherefore all working as a whole with their autonomy intact. The genius of US specifies the subjects listed for the national/federal and the ones reserved for the States and to a fault the residuary powers lie with the states and.There are tercet level of governments national or federal,state and local(counties,townships,cities,etc). withdrawal of powers between the law-makers,executive and judiciary is an important aspect.The Senate (Upper mansion) and sign of Representatives(Lower house) comprise the congress/legislature of the country. There is no specificity in the constitution regarding the administrative system nevertheless it does state that the death chair can from time to time as and when necessary get advise from the knob officers of the various departments regarding his duty as the chief executive of those departments. There are long dozen departments in the administration that come under the direct engage of the electric chair. The President however does not possess the function to inter trade/reorder his cabinet as that power lies with the Congress.Civil serve in USA are also done on virtue through hawkish exams and also at times there are some political appointees too who are chosen by the president for their laughable achievement in a particular field beseemable to the job. Some departments are headed by individuals whereas some are headed by Boards and Commissions.2) UK It is a constitutional and hereditary monarchy. In practise it is a fantanary democracy. The sovereign is the head and performs functions akin to the President of India. legislature is peremptory and is bicameral viz. polarity of nobles(upper house) and House of Commons(lower house). administrator is headed by the political executive that is the Prime Minister and his cabinet that consist of ministries staffed by civil servants under ministers. Boards and commissions are formed to operate and regulate various industries andservices. Judiciary is independent.The House of Lords is the highest address of appeal for civil eccentric somebodys and some unlawful cases.The Senior motor hotels of England and Wales were captainly created by the organisation Acts as the Supreme juridic system of governing body. It was renamed the Supreme Court of England and Wales in 1981, and over again to the Senior Courts of England and Wales by the Constitutional rejuvenate Act 2005. It consists of the following greets * Court of speak to- Deals only with appeals from other woos or tribunals. The Court of Appeal consists of two divisions the Civil Division hears appeals from the advanced Court and County Court and certain overlord tribunals, while the Criminal Division whitethorn only he ar appeals from the Crown Court connected with a trial on indictment (i.e., for a serious offence). Its decisions are binding on all courts, including itself, apart from the Supreme Court.* last Court of referee The laid-back Court of Justice functions, both as a civil court of first instance and a culpable and civil appellate court for cases from the subjugate courts. It consists of three divisions the fagots Bench, the court of chancery and the Family divisions. The divisions of the High Court are not separate courts, but have pretty separate procedures and practises adapted to their purposes. Although particular kinds of cases volition be assigned to each division depending on their subject matter, each division may exercise the jurisdiction of the High Court. However, beginning proceedings in the wrong(p) division may result in a costs penalty.* Crown Court- is a criminal court of both original and appellate jurisdiction which in gain handles a particular measure of civil business both at first instance and on appeal.The Crown Court is the only court in England and Wales that has the jurisdiction to try cases on indictment and when practice such a authority it is a superior court in that its judgements cannot be reviewed by the Administrative Court of the Queens Bench Division of the High Court. The Crown Court is an inferior court in respect of the other work it undertakes, viz. inter alia, appeals from the Magistrates courts and other tribunals. The Lord Chancellor and Home Secy administrate the judicial system. Civil servants are recruited through merit via open competitive exams.3) FRANCE It is a change of Republican as well as fantanary form ofgovt. President is the honcho executive and adores tremendous powers in the legislature as well as Parliament. present the President is directly elected by the great deal.The Prime Minister is then chosen and appointed as per the Presidents wish from the Parliament.The Prime Minister has to hump the confidence of both the President and the Parliament in order to sustain his position.Executive is separated from legislature and thus the President is not able to influence the executive much but still indirectly the PM has to go by him to enjoy his confidence because most of the times,the parliament and the president are from the equal party. Civil services are of two types External enlisting and internal recruitment where external recruitment is done through open competitive exams for graduates under 27 years of age and the internal recruitment is for mickle from the lower echelons of service having at least five dollar bill years of service and not more than 36 years old. They are then chosen and trained at the Ecole Nationale Administration for two years.4) JAPAN The Constitution of lacquer rests on three principles a) sovereignty of nation , b) guarantee of Fundamental Rights, c) renunciation of war.The emperor moth performs the role akin to Indian president. The Nipponese people elect their representatives to the Japanese Parliament called dieting which is bicameral that is, House of Councillors and the House Of Representatives. Both Houses share equal powers but the house of representatives has superiority in matters of finance. The extremum minister is appointed by the prize minister from the Diet who heads the executive and also the Emperor appoints the chief judge of the supreme court.Grants are to be passed by the Diet and then only it is given to the executive. topical anesthetic govt possess autonomy in its matters. commonwealth posses the right to choose their public officials as well as remove them. Civil services are of two types here a) Special govt service includes members of cabinet canonic by the Diet like positions of high officials in Imperial Court,Judges,Ambassadors and Ministers,Diet employees,common labourers and employees of state corporations. b) Includes military force of National govt.,administrative as well as clerical except the Special govt. services ones.DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DEMOCRACY AND stateDemocracy and Republic are two forms of government which are distinguished by their treatment of the Minority, and the various(prenominal), by the Majority.In a Democracy, the Majority has unlimited power over the Minority. This system of government does not provide a legal safeguard of the rights of the Individual and the Minority. It has been referred to as Majority over Man.In a Republic, the Majority is trammel and constrained by a written Constitution which protects the rights of the Individual and the Minority. The purpose of a Republic form of government is to control the Majority and to protect the God-given, inalienable rights and self-reliance of the Individual.The United States of America is founded as a Republic under the Constitution. The Ministers head Ministries with directors under them to carry out execution and also to advise the Minister.CURRENT STATUS OF COMPARATIVE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONAfter the dusk of the comparative administration group (CAG) in the early 1970s,there was a lull in this field due to many factors like theoretical and fact base study was only done and so there was problem in the applicability of those models and USA was going through a gloomy phase in the Vietnamese war and so funds had to be diverted,etc.However, it got a boost once again when scholars like Robert Dahl,James Cloeman,Rapheli,Dwight Waldo etc propagated it and stated that without comparison there can never be a apprehension of administration. Also the behavioural school of popular opinion was bringing in a lot of attention to the fact and value theories of administrative man and so comparative public administration saw a resurgence. In the 80s and 90s studies in CPA resurfaced but with a new objective,philosophy and orientation than its previous predecessors and counterparts. It started to study various arrangements like RTI,Rule of Law,good governance,etc in different countries. It has recently started focusing itself on the analysis of such operations of administrative systems which presume functioning of varioussocieties.The following could be seen as the recent trends in the studies of Comparative Public Administration1) canvass the status of human rights in the nations of the problems associated with human rights. 2) perusing the status of Rule of Law and analysing the barriers if any. 3) canvas the presence of Civil Society Institutions and their role and contribution in the administrative arrangements of societies. 4) canvass the level of participation and involvement in the implementation of schemes related to welfare of people. 5) Studying the presence of arrangements through which accountability of politicians and administrators could be ensured towards the public through the mechanisms prescribed and operable like RTI,Citizens charters,Ombudsman,Social Audit,etc.ECOLOGY AND ADMINISTRATION environmental science in si mple words relates to purlieu. And this environment includes physical,social and cultural aspects. So, sanctionedally we are going to talk about the family between administration and the environment it is set in(internal as well as external) and how the affect each other.Environment is the largest system,the rest and others like political systems,administrative systems,etc are all sub systems who work under it. It influences its sub systems and vice versa. They both have to adjust to each other and also reform and change each other from time to time to stay up to date where the peoples wishes drive the policies and the policies bring in growing that uplifts the socio-economic status and level of the environment for progress. So they are interdependent and not mutually exclusive of each other.Administration is seen as one of the most real aspect of any societal arrangement as it makes possible the achievement of governmental function fulfilment. It has been observed that adminis tration of any state happens to be an expression of various unique factors existing in society and is interdependant over other arrangements in the society that provides the stability of all structure in a society. conglomerate scholars like George Orwell in their writings like Shooting an Elephant books have given case studies of how they have seen practically that the administrative systems in different parts of the world perform differently in order to suit the environment or ecology they are set in.The ecological approach to Public Administration was first propagated popularly by Fred W. Riggs who studied administrative systems in different countries( emphasis on developing countries) and why there was a vast amount of disconnect among them while applying the Americanised theories of Public Administration and how they coped up. He found that the main source for this uniqueness of administrative systems in the world is the environment that they are set in. separately country h ad a different environment setting and that played a study role in the shaping of the administrative system because without the help and approval of its people an administrative system cannot survive and thus it acts according to its environment and in turn it also influences the society with its work and procedures. grievous bodily harm Weber projected an ideal system of bureaucracy where bureaucracy was shown as a closed system unaffected by the environment. A system which Weber sour would be applicable and successful in all countries irrespective of its socio economic status and thats where he went wrong because we can very well see that the systems in USA and UK etc cannot be applied in an environment of India or any other developing countries.Weber did provide a very good structure for the organisation of bureaucracy but the part which he missed as cited above was the starting ground for Riggs when he began his research on the race between ecology and administration. Ecology /Environment affects the administrative system both internally as well as externally.Internally it affects when we take note that in existingity the administrator is a man of society and thus when he is taking an administrative decision,he will definitely be influenced by his values,societal and cultural attitude,etc to quite an extent and that needs to be taken into account.Externally also the ecology/environment affects the administrative organisation by means of social values and rules,culture of the society,dependence on other important subsystems prevalent in the society,etc where the administration and politics have to be in context of the peoples wishes and demands and if they go against it will face a possibility of overthrow and freak anytime.Therefore,one can very conveniently understand from the above mentioned,the delicate and crucial relationship between Ecology and Administration.RIGGSIAN bewilderS AND THEIR CRITIQUERiggs is considered the initiate in the field of b ionomic Approach to Public Administration. He stated that if studies of Public Administration had to become really comparative then it has to shift from being Normative(Establishing, relating to, or deriving from a standard or norm, esp. of behavior) to empirical (Based on, concerned with, or nonsubjective by observation or experience rather than theory or concentrated logic), from Ideographic(case by case study and not related to one another) to nomothetic(relating to the study or discovery of general scientific laws) and from non ecological(closed and confine to one area) to ecological(open and cross cultural).He fault the import of developed countries administrative practices as it is by the developing countries for their progress without any study as the reason for its failure and the reason for developing countries still fall back behind.In his ecological studies he gave the concept of structural operative approach as a means to study the environment and administration rel ation. According to this approach every society has various structures that perform specific functions like political,economic,social,symbolic and communicational functions in the society.On the basis of this approach he proceeded to study and listed twotheoretical models to explain the administrative systems in the comparative context. Those models are a) AGRARIA baby-sit It is the Agricultural society and the characteristics are functional diffusion,particularistic norms,self sufficiency,ascriptive(The attribution of something to a cause) values,stable local groups and limited or no mobility,differentiated stratification. Agraria is agriculture get the hang society and Riggs takes China at the time for instance Imperial China. In agrarian primordial preferences like caste and given priority. Occupational pattern is fixed that is gardening and carries on for many generations.Very few administrative structures and their functions/duties were not at all condition. b) TRANSITIA theoretical account It is the in between society. It is in between or lets use the term in variation between the Agraria and Industria society and bears features resembling to both. It is on the path to become a developed society from an agricultural society. pillowcases are India,Thailand,etc. c) INDUSTRIA forge It refers to a developed or Industry dominated society. Its characteristics are universalistic norms,Achievement values,specific patterns,high degree of social and spatial mobility,well-developed occupational system,egalitarian class system,prevalence of associations which are functionally specific and non ascriptive. USA is an example of this society.LIMITATIONS AND CRITIQUE OF RIGGS AGRARIA-TRANSITIA-INDUSTRIA MODEL 1) It does not help in examining the transitional societies and is too rigid focusing only on the underdeveloped and developed countries. 2) It does not provide qualified mechanism to study mixed-type societies. Critics argue that the industrial societie s will unceasingly retain or have some agrarian features. 3) It assumes a unidirectional movement from an agraria stage to an industria stage. 4) Its major stress is on the environment of the administrative system but not on the administrative system per se. 5) It is too general and abstract with half-size resemblance to concrete reality.Consequently Riggs cast out this typology and proceeded to better it and that resulted in a new typology/model he designed which was the Fused-prismatic-Diffracted get.RIGGS perform TYPOLOGY amalgamate-PRISMATIC-DIFFRACTED MODELIt is the more improvised and stipulate version of his previous typology where the Fused society can be compared to the agrarian model,the prismatic society can be compared to the Transitia model and the Diffracted society can be compared to the Industria model.This Model was designed to silence those critics who stated that Riggs had not effectively and in detail specified the Transitia society which was very importan t as most of the world in in that phase.This model effectively detailed all of the typologies.The new model is based on the principle of a prism and how it diffracts amalgamated colours of white light back into the seven colours of the spectrum when passed through it. whiteness light represents a society with very less degree of specialisation and development and the diffracted spectrum reflects the highly specialised and developed society. The in between prismatic society is the transition society.He stated that neither of the perfect sides exist in totality or as it is but yes,it is certain that they do but in interchangeing degrees as suitable to the environment/ecology.First we will discuss the Fused and Diffracted model and then proceed to explain the Prismatic model. A good understanding of the Fused and Diffracted Model will only be the neb to understand the Prismatic Model features.FUSED MODEL(Ex- Imperial China and Thailand)1) Heavily dependent on agriculture.2) frugal system based on barter system.3) King and officials put up by the king carry out all administrative,economic and other activities. 4) Royal family and special sects dominate.5) Ascriptive values dominate.6) Having many administrative structures that are part diffracted(perform special functions they are given charge of) and part coalesced ( many structures performing many functions which are not prescribed to them thus overlapping with the diffracted ones and perplexing the system).DIFFRACTED MODEL1) It is the polar opposite of the fused society. Each structure carries out its own functions. 2) Attainment value in society.3) Economic system based on market mechanism(demand and supply) 4) Responsive government5) General consensus among all the people on all basic aspects of social life.PRISMATIC MODEL(Example India,Thailand,etc)1) In real no society is completely fused or completely diffracted. A prismatic society has achieved a certain degree of differentiation or specialisation . 2) Heterogeneity coincident existence of different kinds of system and viewpoints. Example rural-urban,Indian gurukuls western education,homoeopathic-allopathic. Various factors pulling the system apart. Political and administrative officers enjoy ample influence. Privileges for select groups which may be communal thus creating problem in administration.3) Formalism(Excessive adherence to prescribed forms) Discrepancy between formally prescribed and effectively practiced norms. Rules and regulations are prescribed but wide deviations are observed. privation of pressure on govt. for programme objectives. Weakness of social powers to influence bureaucratic performance. Hypocrisy in social life. Constitution formalism which means that there is a gap between stated principles and actual implementation. 4) imbrication Differentiated structures coexist with unvarying structures of Fused type. New or modern social structures are created,but conventional social structures conti nue to dominate. Example Parliament,Govt,Offices exist but behaviour is still largely governed by family,religion,caste,etc.SUB-SYSTEMS OF THE PRISMATIC MODEL1) Administrative subsystem which is called the SALA MODEL (The Spanish word, Sala, has a variety of meanings like a government office, religiousconference, a room, a pavilion, etc. The word, Sala, is also generally used in East Asiatic countries more or less with the equal meaning.) a) Certain features of bureau ( diffracted ) coexists with certain features of put up ( fused ). Formalism exists1.a. Universalizaiton of law is there but is not followed. 1.b. Objective is social welfare but priority is personalized aggrandizement. b) Overlapping existsHighly concentrated authority structure overlaps with localized and dispersed control system.c) Non cooperation among rival communities also reflects in administration. So favouritism and nepotism is widespread d) Existence of clects The prevalent group who use modernmethods of organization but retains diffuse and particularistic goal of traditional type. e) For promotion officers depend on ascriptive ties . Officers unresponsive to people . Unbalanced polity in which bureaucracy dominates exists. f) Nepotism, corruption and inefficiency.2) Economic subsystem which is also called the BAZAAR CANTEEN MODEL a) food market factors ( demand and supply ) as well as area factors ( religious, social, family) dominates the economy. b) This leads to price indeterminateness further deteriorating economic conditions encouraging black marketing, hoarding,adulteration etc.c) Foreign domination and a small section of people dominate economic institution. d) Price of services vary from place to place, time to time and person to person. e) Economic subsystem acts like subsidized mobile canteen to priviledged & tributary canteen to members of less priviledged, politically non influential or members of outside group. f) wage relation Wide gap exists for same work. Per sons with less wage may impression motivated to earn more by illegitimate means.DEVELOPMENT MODEL move up level of diffraction represents development. Higher the level of differentiation ( various structures for various functions ) and desegregation (coexistence of these structures ),higher the development.If differentiation is high but no sufficient integrative mechanism , it leads to confusion and chaos. specialism depends upon technological factors.Integration depends upon 1.a. Penetration receptivity of law andgovt. willingness and ability. 1.b. Participation willingness of people to participate.CRITICISM OF RIGGS FUSED-PRISMATIC-DIFFRACTED MODEL1) Usage of scientific words does not make administration science. 2) It has highly technical description3) Prismatic and sala models are labyrinthine sense models and does not lead to social change. 4) Lack of measurement of level of diffraction in prismatic or diffracted society. 5) Diffracted society is also not desirable becaus e it is static and in equilibrium. 6) problematical to identify the level of differentiation and integration for development. 7) Lack of international perspective.8)Wrong analytical tool.9) Fails to explain the role of administration in society.10) Overlapping is not specific phenomena of prismatic society but exists in diffracted society also. 11) Prismatic model has a negative character. disregardless of the criticism Riggs attracted there is no denying that he set the table and standards for Comparative Public Administration and got to the root of the failure of Americanised and Europised Public Administration practices failing in developing countries, through his important paradigm called The Ecological approach to Public Administration,and also suggested the issues that plague the developing countries and how to rectify them.